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Alvis Vehicles FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier

Alvis Vehicles FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier

Picture of an Alvis Vehicles FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier.


FV432

The FV432 is the armoured personnel carrier variant of the British Army's FV430 series of armoured fighting vehicles. Since its introduction in the 1960s, it has been the most common variant, being used for transporting infantry on the battlefield. In the 1980s, almost 2,500 vehicles were in use, with around 1,500 now remaining in operation - mostly in supporting arms rather than front-line infantry service.

Although the FV432 Series was to have been phased out of service in favour of newer vehicles, such as the Warrior and the CVR(T) series, they are now gradually being upgraded to extend their service into the next decade. [ citation needed ]

In light of the army's need for additional armoured vehicles in the Afghan and Iraqi theatres, the Ministry of Defence announced in August 2006 that an extra 70 vehicles would be upgraded by BAE Systems in addition to the 54 already ordered as part of their force protection initiative. The improvements take the form of an engine upgrade, a new steering unit and a new braking system, as well as improvement in armour protection to a level similar to that of the Warrior. In addition, plates lined with Kevlar have been added to the bottom hull. This is intended to provide better protection against improvised explosive devices. It is intended that these FV432s will free up the Warrior vehicles for provision of reserve firepower status and/or rotation out of theatre. The updated version is to be called the Bulldog. [ citation needed ]


Peter's FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier Refurbishment

Peter landed online early in 2013, tasked with a personal ambition to restore his acquisition of a British Army FV432 armoured personnel carrier, from the outset the rapport between the team and Peter was obvious. Arc Components Limited is well-versed with bespoke and custom solutions, most realise that after just a few visits. When walking through the products and categories it also soon becomes apparent that time-saving methods have been employed to cut down browsing time and speed up the choosing time, leaving more time for 'hands-on', it's sometimes referred to as a gift, that we built a website "for engineers".

Products employed:

Peter started his refurbishment selections naturally with consumables and relevant tools first, moving on to core electrical products including fuse-gear, warning lights, switches, electrical cables, harnessing sleeves and cable clips, before working his way round to internal lighting and external lighting solutions for finishing touches.

A selection of the products used:

    sprung loaded red toggle switch safety guard. changeover or on-off-on, double pole toggle switch, 10A. 12V-24V twin 10W LED compact work lamp, IP67. Durite slim 12v or 24v LED vehicle down-lighter. 30 x 4.50mm2 Red 35A auto single core cable. 30m x 4.50mm2 Black 35A auto single core cable. pack of 25, P clips, zinc plated, rubber lined, for cable up to 5mm diameter. pack of 10, 5A crocodile clips, nickel plated steel, jaw opening 13mm. pack of 5, panel mounted 32mm fuse-holders. pack of 10, 32mm standard glass fuses 10A.

What's next?

Peter has now fully restored the FV432 Carrier and shows it at meetings and venues in the south of England. Peter's now moving on this Spring and Summer to a refurbishment of the Alvis Stalwart British Army amphibious cargo truck, the team is looking forward to seeing Peter craft his art once again to bring history back to life. The FV620 affectionately named by service personnel as the 'Stolly' or 'Stally' entered service to the British Armed services in 1966.


Variants

The FV432 has been produced in three major variants, the Mark 1 (with a Mark 1/1 minor variant) with petrol engines, the Mark 2 with a Rolls-Royce K60 multi-fuel engine and the Mark 3 with a diesel engine.

The Mark 2 minor variant, the 2/1, has its NBC pack flush with the hull side. An up-armoured variant, for use in Iraq and Afghanistan, of the Mark 3 was known as Bulldog. This name now appears to be extended to all Mark 3 versions of the FV432.

The FV432 has proven to be flexible in use and can be converted from one role to another with reasonable ease using ‘installation kits’ (IK), or more permanently with minor modifications to the hull. Major or more significant modifications have usually led to a new FV43n number. In addition to the normal armoured personnel carrier role, it has been used as:

  • a command vehicle, seven-crew has two map boards and extra communications equipment (with an additional canvas “penthouse”)
  • an ambulance, unarmed with spots for up to four stretchers or two stretcher and five seated patients
  • a cargo carrier, for up to 3,600 kg
  • a communications vehicle
  • a recovery vehicle. Designated as the FV434, it includes a rear cutout to a “pickup-truck” box to carry a spare engine/other stores with tool store below, an internally mounted winch, and a 2.5-tonne lift arm. Frequently equipped with the canvas penthouse.

FV432s used by combat Infantry units have also been equipped with:

  • the WOMBAT recoilless rifle
  • an 84mm infantry gun mounted with a bar across the top of the troop compartment (firing from the roof hatch)
  • an 81mm mortar on a turntable in the rear of the hull can be traversed through 360° firing through the roof hatch 160 mortar bombs are carried crew consists of a driver, commander and four men
  • the Peak Engineering turret with the L37A1 variant of the 7.62mm GPMG, replacing the roof hatch.
  • a 30 mm Rarden Gun equipped turret (taken from the Fox scout car 13 converted) – Berlin (Below)
  • a night-surveillance ZB 298 radar
  • stowage for MILAN anti-tank missiles when used to carry two missile teams (deployed away from the vehicle)

FV432s used by the Royal Artillery have been equipped with:

  • a battery command post with FACE fire control computer
  • a battery command post with BATES battlefield artillery target engagement system
  • Cymbeline mortar-locating radar
  • sound ranging equipment
  • observation post vehicle ZB 298 radar

FV432s used by the Royal Engineers have been equipped with:

  • a towed layer for L9 anti-tank Bar Mine
  • a launcher for L10 Ranger Anti-Personnel Mine
  • a towed Giant Viper mine-clearing system
  • a Thales Group SWARM Remote Weapon System

Within the 14th/20th King’s Hussars the main role of the FV 432 Armoured Personnel Carrier was that of the Armoured ambulance with one issued to each squadron. The REME detachment was also equipped with the FV 434 variant which was used to remove and replace main battle tank and other vehicle engines and to carry part of the REME detachment personnel.

FV 434 REME repair vehicle


Post War Early Days

The current mainstay British Army is FV432, CVR(T), Warrior and Challenger vehicles. Before can can look at their current fate and the efforts to either replace or upgrade them, we need to start at what they replaced. The story can be reasonably traced back to the post war era.

Table of Contents

Reconnaissance

By the close of WWII Germany remained convinced that wheeled vehicles were best for reconnaissance tasks, while the US preferred tracks. The British Army rejected further development of the two-axle Coventry armoured vehicle and retained in service the Daimler MkII and AEC Mk III until a new vehicle could be introduced. With this in mind, work started on defining a requirement for a high mobility wheeled fighting vehicle design that could operate in all environments and offer a high degree of commonality between variants. With wartime pressures to maximise production from different manufacturers gone the demand for standardisation and a reduction of vehicle types was a key requirement of the Ministry of Supply. Indeed, the lack of commonality across components and standards in such seemingly mundane items as screw threads had resulted in large quantities of equipment being abandoned in North Africa between 1941 and 1942.

The General Staff specification was issued in 1946 for what would become Saracen and Saladin. One of the first issues to resolve was the number of axles a two-axle design was discounted because of mobility and weight carrying concerns, and an eight-wheel design discounted because of the weight and complexity. A 6×6 design was ultimately thought to be the best compromise. The US T19 (based on the T18E1), the T28 and T66 were all examined and generally considered to be a good series of general design concepts to emulate, especially the T28 with its independent suspension, although there is no direct link.

The requirement envisaged a 3 or 4 man crew, 6×6 vehicle armed with an improved version of the 39mm 2 Pounder. Weight rose slightly during later versions of the requirement, creating an opportunity for using an emerging concept in standardised military engines the Rolls Royce B series. This standardised engine series design also meant the elimination of different thread types and the resultant need for two sets of tools and fastenings. High reverse speed, ease of servicing, mobility and vision were also key elements of the requirement. Protection was defined as the ability to withstand 7.93mm Armour Piercing from all angles, 25 Pounder (equivalent) shell splinters at 9m and a 9kg mine under any wheel, close to Level IIIa in today’s standard, STANAG 4569. The image below shows an early wooden mock-up, produced by the newly renamed Fighting Vehicle Research and Development Establishment (FVRDE).


A contract was placed with Alvis in 1947 for the production of two prototypes of the FV601, one of which was sub-contracted to Crossley Motor. In a foreshadowing of more recent defence development work, doubts about the specification began to set in almost as soon as Alvis had started work, specifically in relation to the main armament. After much back and forth the decision was made for the Armaments Design Establishment (ADE) to develop a brand new gun specifically for the vehicle the 76mm L5A1. This larger gun displaced the third crew member from the earlier turret design. Other requirement changes resulted in modifications to the turret layout, along with more delays. During the development phase, Saracen was prioritised over Saladin in order to provide protected mobility vehicles for Malaya. By the mid-fifties Malaya had been stabilised to a point where the large numbers of Saracens originally envisaged were no longer required and the focus shifted back to Saladin. Production of the Saracen was then slowed to allow export production orders to catch up.

It wasn’t until 1958 that the FV601 Saladin Mk2 entered production, 13 years after the initial requirement was defined and the design work had started. Production of Saladin ran from 1958 to 1972, with 1,177 built.


FV432 Bulldog

A recent upgrade programme has seen the delivery of over 100 up-armoured and upgraded FV430 troop carriers (Bulldog). Mechanised Infantry use the Bulldog APC as a form of protected mobility to move around the battlefield. Bulldog offers protection against small arms and artillery fire and provides good strategic and cross-country mobility.
For counter-insurgency operations the up-armoured FV430 provides a similar level of protection to Warrior and the vehicle is able to carry out many of the same tasks as Warrior, thereby relieving the pressure on heavily committed Warrior vehicles in armoured infantry battle groups.


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History of the company

Early history

The original company, T.G. John and Company Ltd., was founded in 1919 by Thomas George John (1880&ndash1946). Its first products were stationary engines, carburetors and motorscooters. Following complaints from the Avro aircraft company whose logo bore similarities to the original winged green triangle, the more familiar inverted red triangle incorporating the word "Alvis" evolved. On 14 December 1921 the company officially changed its name to The Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd. Geoffrey de Freville (1883&ndash1965) designed the first Alvis engine and is also responsible for the company name.

The origin of the name Alvis has been the subject of a great deal of speculation over the years. Some have suggested that de Freville proposed the name Alvis as a compound of the words "aluminium" and "vis" (meaning "strength" in Latin), or perhaps it may have been derived from the Norse mythological weaponsmith, Alvíss. De Freville however vigorously rejected all of these theories. In 1921 he specifically stated that the name had no meaning whatsoever, and was chosen simply because it could be easily pronounced in any language. He reaffirmed this position in the early 1960s, stating that any other explanations for the source of the name were purely coincidental.

Production was relocated to Holyhead Road in Coventry, where from 1922 to 1923 they also made the Buckingham car. In 1922 George Thomas Smith-Clarke (1884&ndash1960) left his job as assistant works manager at Daimler and joined Alvis as Chief Engineer and Works Manager. Smith-Clarke was accompanied by William M. Dunn, who also left his job as a draughtsman at Daimler to become Chief Draughtsman at Alvis. This partnership lasted for nearly 28 years and was responsible for producing some of the most successful products in the company's history. Smith-Clarke left in 1950, and Dunn assumed Smith-Clarke's position as chief engineer, remaining in that position until 1959.

De Freville's first engine design was a four-cylinder engine with aluminium pistons and pressure lubrication, which was unusual for that time. The first car model using de Freville's engine was the Alvis 10/30. It was an instant success and established the reputation for quality workmanship and superior performance for which the company was to become famous. The original 10/30 side-valve engine was improved, becoming by 1923 the overhead valve Alvis 12/50, a highly successful sports car that was produced until 1932. Around 700 of the 12/50 models and 120 of the later Alvis 12/60 models survive today. [ citation needed ]

1927 saw the introduction of the six-cylinder Alvis 14.75 and this engine became the basis for the long line of luxurious six-cylinder Alvis cars produced up to the outbreak of the Second World War. These cars were elegant and full of technical innovations. Independent front suspension and the world's first all-synchromesh gearbox came in 1933 followed by servo assisted brakes. The Alvis 12/75 model was introduced in 1928, a model bristling with innovation, such as front-wheel drive, in-board brakes, overhead camshaft and, as an option, a Roots type supercharger. [ citation needed ]

As with many upmarket engineering companies of the time, Alvis did not produce their own coachwork, relying instead on the many available coachbuilders in the Midlands area, such as Carbodies, Charlesworth Bodies, Cross and Ellis, Duncan Industries (Engineers) Ltd, E. Bertelli Ltd, Grose, Gurney Nutting, Hooper, Lancefield Coachworks, Martin Walter Ltd, Mayfair, Mulliners, Tickford, Vanden Plas, Weymann Fabric Bodies, and William Arnold Ltd. Several cars also survive with quite exotic one-off bodywork from other designers such as Holbrook, a U.S. coachbuilder.

In 1936 the company name was shortened to Alvis Ltd, and aircraft engine and armoured vehicle divisions were added to the company by the beginning of the Second World War. Smith-Clarke designed several models during the 1930s and 1940s, including the six-cylinder Speed 20, the Speed 25, and the Alvis 4.3 Litre model.

Second World War

Car production was initially suspended in September 1939 following the outbreak of war in Europe, but was later resumed and production of the 12/70, Crested Eagle, Speed 25, and 4.3 Litre continued well into 1940. The car factory was severely damaged on 14 November 1940 as a result of several bombing raids on Coventry by the German Luftwaffe, although ironically the armaments factory suffered little damage. Much valuable cutting gear and other equipment was lost and car production was suspended for the duration of the war, only resuming during the latter part of 1946. Despite this, Alvis carried out war production on aircraft engines (as sub-contractor of Rolls-Royce Limited) and other aircraft equipment in its shadow factories.

Post war

Car production resumed with a four-cylinder model, the TA 14, based on the pre-war 12/70. A solid, reliable and attractive car, the TA 14 fitted well the mood of sober austerity in post war Britain, but much of the magic attaching to the powerful and sporting pre-war models had gone and life was not easy for a specialist car manufacturer. Not only had Alvis lost their car factory but many of the prewar coachbuilders had not survived either and those that had were quickly acquired by other manufacturers. In fact, the post-war history of Alvis is dominated by the quest for reliable and reasonably priced coachwork. [ citation needed ]


Contents

The RARDEN was intended to be retro-fitted to the FV432 armoured personnel carrier, but when fitted with RARDEN and its turret there was too little room left to accommodate the necessary infantry.

FV432 [ edit | edit source ]

The FV432 was designed to be the armoured personnel carrier in the FV430 series. Production started in 1962 by GKN Sankey and ended in 1971 giving approximately three thousand vehicles.

The FV432 is an all-steel construction. The FV432 chassis is a conventional tracked design with the engine at the front and the driving position to the right. Directly behind the driver position is the vehicle commander's hatch. There is a large split-hatch round opening in the passenger compartment roof and a side-hinged door in the rear for loading and unloading. As in many designs of its era there are no firing ports for the troops carried - British Army doctrine has always been to dismount from vehicles to fight, unlike Russian infantry fighting vehicles that largely incorporate ports. The passenger compartment has five seats either side - these fold up to provide a flat cargo space.

An NBC system on the right side of the hull gives fresh air for the troops. Wading screens and a trim vane were fitted as standard and an extension went on the exhaust pipe. The vehicle has a water speed of about 6 km/h when converted for swimming and was propelled by its tracks. Most of these vehicles have had their amphibious capability removed.

FV432s in service with infantry regiments are equipped with a pintle-mounted L7 GPMG (if not fitted with the Peak Engineering turret). Vehicles with the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers and Royal Signals were originally fitted with the L4A4 variant of the Bren light machine gun, but they now use the GPMG. When equipped with the GPMG, the vehicle carries 1,600 rounds of belted 7.62mm ammunition when carrying the Bren LMG, the vehicle carried 1,400 rounds of 7.62mm ammunition (50 magazines, each holding 28 rounds). There are two three-barrel smoke dischargers at the front.

L21A1 RARDEN [ edit | edit source ]

The RSAF Enfield manufactured the Rarden from the early 1970s. However the RSAF was incorporated within the Royal Ordnance Factories in the early 1980s, in the run up to their privatization, becoming part of Royal Ordnance. Royal Ordnance (RO) planned to close Enfield and several other sites after privatization. British Aerospace (BAe) bought Royal Ordnance on 2 April 1987 and the closure of RSAF Enfield was announced on 12 August 1987. Most of RO Enfield's work was moved, prior to the closure of the RSAF, to RO Nottingham.

Manufacture of the RARDEN was carried out at British Manufacture and Research Company BMARC from 1985. This company was purchased by BAe in 1992, becoming part of RO Defence now renamed BAE Systems Global Combat Systems Munitions.


FV432 Rarden were used in the Infantry battalions of the Berlin Brigade.


FV432 APC

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 08/17/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The FV432 was a solid, if unspectacular, armored personnel carrier for the British Army, seeing over 3,000 in total production completed. Much like other multi-faceted chassis of this type, the FV432 continues to serve in other roles (electronic warfare, battlefield recovery, artillery command, etc. ), though not the primary frontline Armored Personnel Carrier role it was originally designed for. The FV432 series of APCs has since been supplanted by the modern "Warrior" Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) in the British Army inventory.

The FV432 became the most numerous of the FV430-related vehicles. It ended as a 15-ton system with an overall length of 5.25 meters, a width of 2.8 meters and a height of 2.28 meters. Internally, there was a standard operating crew of two with seating for eleven combat-ready troops. Armor protection shielded occupants and critical working components from small arms fire and artillery spray while local defense was through a 7.62mm L7 General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG). A self-screening feature was accomplished by use of six smoke grenade dischargers.

Drive power came from a Rolls-Royce K60 multi-fueled unit of 240 horsepower output. There were five double-tired roadwheels to a hull side (fully suspended for cross-country travel) with the drive sprocket at front and track idler at rear. Two track return rollers were in play. Operational range reached 580 kilometers with road speeds nearing 52 kmh.

After early actions in the Iraq War - in which FV430 troop carriers proved susceptible to enemy IEDs and RPGs, the vehicle was up-armored to become the FV430 Mk III "Bulldog" detailed elsewhere on this site. These began service in useful numbers during August of 2007.


Watch the video: Going to the petrol station in a Tank to fill up (December 2021).