The Dei Gratia, a small British brig under Captain David Morehouse, spots the Mary Celeste, an American vessel, sailing erratically but at full sail near the Azores Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The ship was seaworthy, its stores and supplies were untouched, but not a soul was onboard.
On November 7, the brigantine Mary Celeste sailed from New York harbor for Genoa, Italy, carrying Captain Benjamin S. Briggs, his wife and two-year-old daughter, a crew of eight, and a cargo of some 1,700 barrels of crude alcohol. After the Dei Gratia sighted the vessel on December 4, Captain Morehouse and his men boarded the ship to find it abandoned, with its sails slightly damaged, several feet of water in the hold, and the lifeboat and navigational instruments missing. However, the ship was in good order, the cargo intact, and reserves of food and water remained on board.
The last entry in the captain’s log shows that the Mary Celeste had been nine days and 500 miles away from where the ship was found by the Dei Gratia. Apparently, the Mary Celeste had been drifting toward Genoa on her intended course for 11 days with no one at the wheel to guide her. Captain Briggs, his family, and the crew of the vessel were never found, and the reason for the abandonment of the Mary Celeste has never been determined.
READ MORE: What Happened to the Mary Celeste?
The unsolved mystery of “Mary Celeste”: Found adrift in 1872, the captain and family and crew all vanished, but cargo and possessions intact
Can you imagine how creepy it would be to sail across the ocean and suddenly run into a ship drifting, unmanned and yet completely intact?
In all honesty, nothing compares to a scene such as that, really. The MV Lyubov Orlova, a long-lost abandoned cruise ship believed to be infested with flesh-eating cannibal rats heading right toward you might make for an even scarier scenario, but that’s another story for another time. Let’s focus on this other ship, and the mind-boggling mystery about its missing crew.
It has been tickling people’s imaginations for over a century. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Stephen King wrote about it, and many of us probably heard something about it. A whole century has passed, and still no one really knows for sure what had happened to those who boarded the Mary Celeste, probably the most famed of all the ghost ships.
“Mary Celeste,” then named “Amazon,” in 1861
The mystery is still very much not solved, and there are tons of plausible scenarios drifting around about what happened to the ship that set sail on November 7, 1872, from New York Harbor towards Genoa, Italy, and never reached its destination but was found abandoned “in mint condition” with everything intact–except for the men and the lifeboat.
Without survivors to tell the tale in detail, we offer some hard facts so you can try to decipher the solution for yourselves and decide what could, or couldn’t, have happened to the crew on board the Mary Celeste back in 1872.
According to nautical testimonies and maritime records, the 282-ton brigantine co-owned by James H Winchester, Sylvester Goodwin, and Benjamin Spooner Briggs, deemed seaworthy, insured, and loaded with 1,701 barrels of American alcohol (separately insured), began its journey from New York to Italy.
On board were Benjamin Spooner Briggs, one of the owners and the ship’s captain his first mate, Albert Richardson the captain’s wife, Sarah their two-year-old daughter, Sophia and the other six crewmen, all considered to be experienced and trustworthy. It was Captain Briggs’ first trip on the ship for which he bought shares earlier the same year, hoping to retire from the high seas and live a calm family life, earning money as a shipowner instead.
A waterspout, photographed off Florida (1969). A waterspout strike has been offered as a possible solution to the “Mary Celeste” mystery.
This was a try-out and Arthur, their seven-year-old son cared for by his grandmother (Briggs’s mother), was waiting for them back home in Rose Cottage, in Marion, Massachusetts. A few day before the journey, Briggs wrote his mother:
“My dear Mother…We seem to have a very good mate and steward and I hope I shall have a pleasant voyage. We both have missed Arthur and I believe we should have sent for him if I could…We finished loading last night and shall leave on Tuesday morning if we don’t get off tomorrow night, the Lord willing. Our vessel is in beautiful trim and I hope we shall have a fine passage but I have never been in her before and cant say how she’ll sail… Shall want to write us in about 20 days to Genoa…Hoping to be with you in the spring with much love. I am Yours affectionately, Benj.” – New York, Nov. 3d, 1872.
It was not Tuesday but Thursday when the ship sailed and the crew was last seen alive.
About a week later, another ship previously docked on the same harbor in New York, set sail to cross the Atlantic, the Dei Gratia or By the Grace of God. Both ships had similar routes, somewhat parallel paths, and one strange encounter on the open sea.
Scattered somewhere around 800 miles west of the coast of Portugal, nine larger volcanic islands and a whole bunch of smaller ones comprise what is today considered by many one of the “best-kept secrets” of the Atlantic. The Azores.
Gonâve Island, in the Gulf of Gonâve, Haiti. The Rochelois Bank is faintly discernible in the southerly channel between the island and the mainland.
And not far from these gems of nature, precisely halfway between the Azores and Portugal, on December 5th, Captain David Morehouse, of the Dei Gratia, along with every single member of his crew, witnessed a strange sight: a ship at full sail was swinging wildly with the ocean waves. There were no signs it was guided by a man. Captain Morehouse recognized it as the Mary Celeste, but the ship was meant to be in Geneva by know. Realizing that something must have happened, they changed course to intercept the drifting vessel.
The ship was reportedly intact and empty. There were no signs of struggle, no explosions, nothing. Just a lifeboat missing and a crew that apparently left everything behind, including the captain’s journal. The cargo was there, the food was there, their clothes were, everything. It was as if the whole crew just vanished into thin air. Except for the ship’s chronometer, the celestial navigation book, and a log not entered in the captain’s diary of why they left the boat in such a hurry, everything was inside. The last entry said that after a long battle with a harsh storm they finally saw land in sight and were heading towards it. It was 5 A.M., November 25, 1872, and the land in sight was Santa Maria, one of the Azure Islands. In a strange twist of events, a crew that mysteriously went missing was last recorded heading towards one of the “best-kept secrets” in the Atlantic.
Captain Morehouse and his crew took the boat they found abandoned and sailed it to Gibraltar, for the ship was seaworthy and a reward was to be given to those who would find a lost ship at sea. He knew Captain Briggs personally, and that he was an adept sailor. He believed that something dire must have made him believe that the boat was about to sink, explode, or something of the sort.
The young Arthur Conan Doyle, whose 1884 short story did much to disseminate “Mary Celeste” myths
The British Vice Admiralty Court called for a hearing to investigate if the finders were entitled to a reward from the insurance company. The ship was thoroughly examined and believed to be seaworthy but in very bad shape. A court statement reads: “The Galley was in a bad state, the stove was knocked out of its place, and the cooking utensils were strewn around. The whole ship was a thoroughly wet mess. The Captain’s bed was not fit to sleep in and had to be dried.” Moreover, they found one of the pipes to be broken, the ship’s floor flooded three and a half feet high in water, and nine of the barrels empty, as Captain Morehouse and his crewmen reported when they docked the ship in Gibraltar and asked for salvage rights.
Acting as Attorney General for Gibraltar in the investigation, Frederick Solly-Flood, who actually was an Advocate General for the Queen in Her Office of the Admiralty, made sure to accuse everyone of everything even Briggs himself as an accomplice in an insurance fraud, but in the end, after more than three months, not a shred of evidence of foul play was found and Sir James Cochrane, the Chief Justice of Gibraltar presiding as judge in this specific case, “cleared the men of all charges” brought upon them and granted them salvage rights in accordance with maritime law. According to him and the investigation conducted, the crew left the ship in a hurry in a state of panic.
Gibraltar in the 19th century
The story continues to intrigue people a century and a half later after the “Mary Celeste” was discovered, with the crew missing and one of the recently refitted ship’s pumps dismantled in the flooded hold. A letter from the 1940s confirms that “harsh stormy conditions prevailed in the Azores on the 24 and 25 November 1872″ – Servico Meteorologico dos Açores Angra do Heroismo, Azores Islands, May 27, 1940.
Was the mystery blown out of proportion by an investigator who wanted to make a name for himself at the time, thus opening the way for a lot of speculation in the future, as many suggest he did?
Or could it be the case that Briggs made a bad judgment about the state of his ship and, under harsh storm conditions, fearing for his family and his crew, left it all together in an attempt to reach land–but failed and drowned as a result. No one really knows for sure, and perhaps we never will. The case of the Mary Celeste is still a mystery unsolved.
The Mary Celeste’s Crew
The Mary Celeste was a merchant brigantine that was launched under British registration in 1861 as Amazon. Seven years later, she was transferred to American ownership, and was re-christened as the Mary Celeste .
The ship continued to sail uneventfully until her 1872 voyage from New York to Genoa. The ship’s captain was Benjamin Briggs, a man said to be a staunch abstainer from alcohol and a devout Christian. Captain Briggs was also described as a brave officer who would not abandon his ship unless to save his life. The first mate, Albert Richardson, was also considered fit to command, and was hand-picked by Captain Briggs. Additionally, Captain Brigg’s wife, his infant daughter, and six other crew members were on board the Mary Celeste.
The Missing Crew of the Mary Celeste. From Left to Right: Benjamin Briggs, Captain of Mary Celeste Albert C. Richardson, First mate Sarah Briggs, wife of Benjamin Briggs Sophia Briggs, daughter of Benjamin and Sarah Briggs. (Public Domain)
Towards the end of October 1872, the loading of the ship’s cargo – 1701 barrels of poisonous denatured alcohol - began. On November 7, the Mary Celeste left New York Harbor, and sailed into the Atlantic. On December 4, the British brigantine Dei Gratia discovered the Mary Celeste sailing aimlessly between the Azores and Portugal.
The Antikythera Wreck
In 1900, sponge divers off the coast of the small Greek island of Antikythera discovered a Roman shipwreck that’s believed to have sunk around the year 60 B.C. The wreck has proven to be a veritable treasure trove of ancient artifacts. Coins, jewelry, marble sculptures, and beautiful bronze statues have all been recovered from the site. But the most compelling object to be raised from the wreck is an unusual device made up of multiple bronze gears (as well as a handle that allowed users to wind the device) that’s come to be known as the Antikythera Mechanism. This complex device is the earliest known example of an analog computer and was used to track the movement of celestial bodies. But perhaps the thing that makes the mechanism so intriguing is that nothing else like it has been found before or since its emergence from the Aegean over a century ago.
Recommended Fodor&rsquos Video
Other Explanations for the Abandonment of the Mary Celeste
The above scenario is perhaps one of the more logical and plausible explanations for the disappearance of the Mary Celeste’s crew. Nevertheless, there has not been any real consensus as to the cause of Captain Brigg’s panic, and numerous theories have been put forward. According to one sea captain, David Williams, the Mary Celeste was abandoned due to a seaquake, a relatively common phenomenon in the Azores.
Williams argues that the seaquake caused nine barrels of the denatured alcohol to spill. As a result, there was fear that the alcoholic fumes would cause an explosion, prompting the captain to abandon ship. Although there were nine empty barrels when the ship was found, they were all made of red oak, a more porous wood than the other white oak barrels, and thus more likely to leak. Furthermore, the crew that discovered the Mary Celeste did not report smelling any fumes from the alcohol and stated that the ship’s main hatch was secure – not blown off as it may have been by an intense wave of heat following an explosion.
However, some scholars still believe that an explosion might have actually happened. For example, Dr. Andrea Sella, a scientist at UCL (University College London), has demonstrated that a pressure-wave type of explosion might have occurred on the ship. When a spectacular wave of flame is produced, it is followed by relatively cold air, leaving neither soot, nor any marks of burning or scorching behind. Therefore, it is also possible that a huge, but relatively harmless, flame had terrified Captain Briggs into abandoning the Mary Celeste.
Another intriguing theory has been provided by the documentarian Anne MacGregor, who suggests the captain was dealing with rough seas, a faulty chronometer, and a clogged pump before he ordered everyone to abandon the ship. That combination may have caused Briggs to have difficulty in determining how much seawater was in his ship’s hull, which was so packed a visual survey may not have been helpful, and once he spotted land he may have thought it better to abandon the ship than wait for it to sink.
While the above theories seem plausible, their existence has not stopped the dissemination of wild rumors and speculations regarding the final fate of the crew members. Over the decades, various suggestions have been made including crew mutiny, or the murder of a drunken crew by the crew of the Dei Gratia, who found the Mary Celeste. Others have even suggested death by a giant octopus or squid, alien abduction, or that the crew came upon a derelict ship containing treasure and deserted the Mary Celeste to live happily ever-after in Spain.
A painting of the Mary Celeste as Amazon in 1861. (Public Domain)
If new evidence comes to light in the future, we just might be able to gain a better understanding of what really happened to the Mary Celeste on her fateful voyage in 1872, and perhaps solve this mystery once and for all.
The Attorney General was the first Mary Celeste conspiracy theorist
The Mary Celeste and her cargo were worth a lot of money, and the laws of the sea said "finders, keepers." Ghost Ship records that the Dei Gratia crew divided up and sailed both ships to Gibraltar. This was incredibly dangerous, since neither ship had enough men, but both made it safely, proving that the Mary Celeste was still perfectly seaworthy.
To claim salvage rights, the captain of the Dei Gratia had to go through the courts. What at first seemed like a simple matter quickly turned strange. From the beginning, the Attorney General thought there was "some sort of conspiracy." The crew testified that they found things on the Mary Celeste were wet and knocked over, but that was to be expected if she was unmanned at sea for a week. A few things were missing, but most of the items you'd expect on a ship were still there. One pump was out of order, but the other worked fine. There was no blood or signs of struggle.
This was too weird for the Attorney General, as it would be for many people who heard the tale. He believed either the crew of the Dei Gratia was working with those on the Mary Celeste in some sort of financial scam, or they had killed everyone onboard. But he couldn't prove it, so the judge gave the captain a salvage award, although much less than the ship and her contents were worth.
Sailing without a crew
In 1750, the Sea Bird was close to Newport Harbour, Rhode Island, when onlookers noticed there was no crew on the deck. The ship then sailed itself through the rough breakers to beach itself gently on Easton’s Beach.
Easton’s Beach – The site of the Sea Bird’s mystical arrival and mysterious disappearance. Image: Amit Chattopadhyay, via wiki media/Flickr.
Tentative witnesses boarded the silent vessel but were aghast to find the ship deserted. The cargo was still in the hold and, as in all good ghost stories, the kettle was boiling on the stove. An ‘elaborate breakfast’ was said to be waiting on the table. Even a dressing gown was noted as being carelessly tossed aside.
Naturally, there were no signs of violence. No signs of robbery or even sickness. Possessions and instruments were left in their places. One of the longboats was absent, suggesting the crew might have taken flight in a fit of panic – but nothing suggested why…. It was even ‘recorded’, though no one can confirm where (ah, folktales), that the captain himself was spotted only hours earlier on the deck of the Sea Bird by passing fishermen.
Yes, the spookiness is always in the details.
Ship’s Kitchen – As with all good ghost ship tales, the Sea Bird’s kitchen was well equipped with food prepared and awaiting the morning breakfast rush. Image: HMS Victory galley, by Neil Howard via Flickr.
What makes this tale even more enticing is that by many accounts the Sea Bird itself, after the cargo was unloaded, then ‘disappeared’ overnight. It was whispered that the ship was taken by the same ‘mysterious power’ that took its crew and then sailed it through treacherous waters to beach upon the shore.
There are of course many (more serious, historical) accounts claiming no such thing happened. That the Sea Bird was simply sold to a wealthy local merchant who changed the name, presumably for luck and PR purposes. But the supernatural version has proven a much more popular tale to tell, especially on Halloween. No crew or debris was ever discovered and the Sea Bird was, of course, never seen again – unless in ghostly apparitions.
December 4, 1872, The “Mary” Celeste Found Abandoned
The captain tried to hale the Mary Celeste several times without success and so a crew was sent investigate. What was found is one of the greatest nautical mysteries in our history.
The Mary Celeste left New York on November 7 th 1872. She had seven crew members, the captain and his wife as well as their two year old daughter. She carried a cargo of 1701 barrels of drinkable alcohol and the ship was bound for Genoa Italy. What happened to the ship and its crew will never be known.
As the crew members of the Dei Gratia boarded the ship, the found it completely deserted. All ten people on board had disappeared however the cargo was still there except 9 barrels of the alcohol which been emptied but not removed. The crew’s belongings were in still in the bunk room. The only anomaly was a pump that had been disassembled. In fact nothing seemed to be missing at all except the people.
The log book had its last entry made on November 25 th . What was written in the log book has also been lost as the book was stolen. The Dei Gratia got the Mary Celeste to Gibraltar where an inquest was held. There was some suspicion that the crew of the Dei Gratia had killed the crew and passengers of the Celeste, but Captain Morehouse was considered an upright man and that idea was dismissed. However the ship was insured for $35,000 but the crew of the Dei Gratia only received a percentage of the full finder’s fee so there remained a question still about the honesty of the Gratia crew.
There are many theories about what happened to The Mary Celeste. Some suggest pirates, which make no sense as the cargo was left untouched, others suggest Alien Abduction. There have been thoughts of giant sea monsters as well as natural sea quakes. There was also talk of time travel. If that happened and the crew and passengers went to the past we still never know, but if they went to the future we could, one day, still find out. The truth will quite likely never be known.
In fact the whole incident may have passed notice altogether except for a poor physician that couldn’t get his practice going and so turned to writing. In 1884 this English gentleman wrote a short story entitled “J. Habakuk Jephson’s Statement” which was basically the story of The Mary Celeste, it was published in a popular magazine of the time. The author changed the name of the ship from the Mary Celeste to The Marie Celeste and the confusion over the name remains to this day.
3. SS Waratah: Titanic of the South
Another intriguing ship disappearance took place well away from the Bermuda Triangle. British passenger 500-feet-long (152.4 m) vessel Waratah vanished without trace in July 1909 claiming the lives of 211 people onboard.
Credits to National Maritime Museum
Facts about SS Waratah:
- Waratah is often called the ‘Titanic of the South’ as she was a big (9,339 t) and new steamship travelling between Europe and Australia.
- The boat left Adelaide on July 7th, 1909, made it safely to Durban (South Africa) and left for Cape Town on the 25th of July, 1909.
- One of the passengers, engineer Claude S. Sawyer, disembarked in Durban and ‘cabled’ his wife that “Thought Waratah top-heavy, landed Durban.”
- Later the same day the weather deteriorated while Waratah was glimpsed by a bigger steam ship.
- Tanker Harlow’s crew admitted that Waratah emitted a lot of smoke (they thought the vessel had been on fire). Then, they saw 2 bright flashes and Waratah’s running lights disappeared.
Vain Searches for SS Waratah
The fate of Waratah and her over 200 passengers remained unknown for almost 90 years when Emlyn Brown, marine explorer from the South African National Underwater and Marine Agency (NUMA), announced that he had discovered the location of the wreck off the Eastern Cape coast in July 1999.
However, the later update made by Dr. Brown in 2001 shows that Waratah keeps her secrets:
“…Although the submarine dive to the wreck was flawless, the wreck we thought was the Waratah, is in fact not, repeat not the Waratah,” …. “It is a cargo ship carrying military hardware, tanks, tires, trucks, etc. that we now know was sunk by a U-boat in 1942. I, and all involved are stunned beyond belief, and almost speechless at what was finally seen on the ocean floor.”
Credits to NUMA
The findings are impressive indeed, but SS Waratah remains one the great maritime mysteries. The last search took place in 2004.
This story begins with a modern day young girl who wants to be a detective. Her dad is a reporter and that&aposs like being a detective. She presents the facts of the Mary Celeste, asks important questions that might help solve the mystery and allows the reader to draw their own conclusions.
I don&apost think I&aposve heard this story before. It&aposs certainly something I would have been interested in, being obsessed with the 19th-century. I like how she (the narrator and the author) has text boxes to introduce This story begins with a modern day young girl who wants to be a detective. Her dad is a reporter and that's like being a detective. She presents the facts of the Mary Celeste, asks important questions that might help solve the mystery and allows the reader to draw their own conclusions.
I don't think I've heard this story before. It's certainly something I would have been interested in, being obsessed with the 19th-century. I like how she (the narrator and the author) has text boxes to introduce unfamiliar vocabulary to readers. The story is captivating and I really don't have a clue except that they must have felt they were in immediate danger and grabbed and dashed off. If the Captain and family left to go visiting the crew would have been left behind. Likewise some of the crew would have remained if others went off on an expedition.
This is a good mystery book for older kids 7-10 to read on their own even though it's a picture book. . more
The Mary Celeste: An Unsolved Mystery from History by Jane Yolen, illustrated Heidi E.Y. Stemple, is a look at the disappearance of the crew of the Mary Celeste in 1872 in the Atlantic Ocean. A young girl realtes the facts and theories about the case, and challenges readers to solve the mystery.
The text clearly presents the facts and theories surrounding the disappearance of the crew and passengers. The format includes definitions of nautical terms, a map, timeline and notes by the girl narrator The Mary Celeste: An Unsolved Mystery from History by Jane Yolen, illustrated Heidi E.Y. Stemple, is a look at the disappearance of the crew of the Mary Celeste in 1872 in the Atlantic Ocean. A young girl realtes the facts and theories about the case, and challenges readers to solve the mystery.
The text clearly presents the facts and theories surrounding the disappearance of the crew and passengers. The format includes definitions of nautical terms, a map, timeline and notes by the girl narrator.
The illustrations were done with transparent watercolor, with pencil for detail and texture. They support the text and are well rendered, drawing readers into the story.
Of the six thories mentioned, I personally favor either the frightened crew theory or the weather theory, or a combination of the two. The crew could have been frightened by alcohol fumes - fearing an explosion, or a seaquake - fearing sinking, leading them to abandon ship. The weather theory culd be a seaquake. The disappearance of the crew could be explained by severe weather that caused the line linking the ship and lifeboat to be severed, leaving the lifeboat to drift away and be capsized.
The story could be extended through writing or study of the case through books or available websites.
For readers grades five and up, mysteries, history, theories, and fans of Jane Yolen and Heidi E.Y. Stemple. . more
Jane Yolen offers a straightforward but still fun introduction for kids to the mystery of the ship Mary Celeste. In 1872, the British ship Dei Gratia (Latin for "by the grace of God") found the Mary Celeste drifting in the North Atlantic ocean, 400 miles off the coast of the Azores. The crew of the Dei Gratia boarded the Mary Celeste, found absolutely no one on board, but also no evidence of struggle or trauma of any kind. Everything looked as if the people had just stepped away for a moment. To Jane Yolen offers a straightforward but still fun introduction for kids to the mystery of the ship Mary Celeste. In 1872, the British ship Dei Gratia (Latin for "by the grace of God") found the Mary Celeste drifting in the North Atlantic ocean, 400 miles off the coast of the Azores. The crew of the Dei Gratia boarded the Mary Celeste, found absolutely no one on board, but also no evidence of struggle or trauma of any kind. Everything looked as if the people had just stepped away for a moment. To this day, definitive answers baffle and elude historians.
Still, Yolen's approach encourages young readers to continue to seek answers and enjoy the process of research, whether you end up finding the answers or not. Lots of pertinent sailing terminology is also provided to give readers an authentic feel of the era and environment of the Mary Celeste. . more
Note: I would not choose this book for storytime I think that it would be a better choice for one on one reading. If you are a parent, please read the book, before sharing it with your children.
In 1872, another ship came across the "Mary Celeste" adrift on the open sea. Her captain, crew, and passengers -- the captain&aposs wife and two-year-old daughter -- had vanished. Did a storm over take them? Did the crew mutiny? Were they attacked by pirates? No one ever found out. Become a detective Note: I would not choose this book for storytime I think that it would be a better choice for one on one reading. If you are a parent, please read the book, before sharing it with your children.
In 1872, another ship came across the "Mary Celeste" adrift on the open sea. Her captain, crew, and passengers -- the captain's wife and two-year-old daughter -- had vanished. Did a storm over take them? Did the crew mutiny? Were they attacked by pirates? No one ever found out. Become a detective as you read this true story, study the clues, and try to figure out the fate of the "Mary Celeste." The Unsolved Mystery from History series is written by acclaimed author Jane Yolen and former private investigator Heidi Elisabet Yolen Stemple. Read carefully and check your clues. You might be the first to solve a puzzle that has baffled people for years.
Jane Yolen was born February 11, 1939 in New York City. She received her BA from Smith College in 1960. After college, she became an editor in New York City and wrote during her lunch break. She sold her first children's book, Pirates in Petticoats, at the age of 22. Since then, she has written over 300 books for children, young adults and adults. Her other works include the Emperor and the Kite, Owl Moon, How Do Dinosaurs Say Goodnight? and The Devil's Arithmetic, which tells the story of the life of a Jew in a concentration camp. She has won a multitude of medals for her work including the Kerlan Award, the Regina Medal, the Keene State Children's Literature Award, the Caldecott Medal, two Nebula Awards, two Christopher Medals, the World Fantasy Award, three Mythopoeic Fantasy Awards, the Golden Kite Award, the Jewish Book Award, the World Fantasy Association's Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Association of Jewish Libraries Award. (Bowker Author Biography)
International maritime signal flags
Detective and mystery stories . more