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Curtiss XS3C/ XF10C-1

Curtiss XS3C/ XF10C-1

Curtiss XS3C/ XF10C-1

The Curtiss XS3C-1/ XF10C-1 was the designation given to a single O2C-2 after it was rebuilt to serve as a possible scout or fighter. The aircraft had originally been built as a company demonstrator of a Cyclone powered F8C Helldiver, and had been purchased by the Navy, where it became the XF8C-8 prototype (A8847). This aircraft was later returned to Curtiss, but was damaged in a crash. Curtiss took the chance to redesign the fuselage, produce new tail surfaces and install a single strut undercarriage.

The modified aircraft was returned to the Navy as the XS3C-1 scout aircraft. It was also considered for use as a fighter, and in that role would have been the XF10C-1. Although that designation was reserved for the aircraft, it wasn't actually used. The XS3C survived until February 1932 but was then written off after a crash.

Engine: Wright R-1820E Cyclone
Power: 650hp
Crew: 2
Span: 32ft
Length: 26ft 3 7/8in
Height: 10ft 2in
Empty weight: 1,577lb
Gross weight: 5,014lb
Max speed: 180mph
Climb Rate: 1,600ft/ min
Service ceiling: 18,700ft
Range: 600 miles


Curtiss XS3C/ XF10C-1 - History

Базовое обозначение F8C в системе ВМС США распространялось на два разных самолета. Более ранний из них именовался Model 37С Falcon, а более поздний - Model 49 Helldiver.
Model 37D появился в соответствии с требованием ВМС, выпущенным от имени Дальше More >>> КМП на двухместный истребитель берегового базирования, обладавший возможностью вести разведку и осуществлять бомбометание. Фирма "Curtiss" в ответ на эти требования предложила биплан, основанный на O-1, в котором сочетались черты XO-12 и XA-14, но с усиленным стрелковым вооружением, подкрыльевыми бомбодержателями как у А-3 и звездообразным двигателем воздушного охлаждения. Тип двигателя выбирался из обязательного списка силовых установок для самолетов ВМС и КМП.
ВМС сначала заказали два прототипа XF8C-1 и четыре серийных самолета F8C-1 с двигателями R-1340-B Wasp мощностью 432 л.с. (322 кВт). Чтобы сохранить центровку машины при установке более легкого мотора, носовую часть фюзеляжа удлинили за счет дополнительном секции. Все самолеты были поставлены в начале 1928 года.
Первый XF8C-1 появился в феврале 1928-го. По завершении испытаний прототипов с них сняли "экспериментальный" статус (обозначавшийся буквой "X" в индексе машины), и они стали обычными F8C-1. Затем были выпущены еще четыре таких самолета. Несмотря на то, что они предназначались для применения как штурмовики и машины общего назначения, их заказывали как истребители. Но неважные летные данные сравнительно тяжелого самолета сделали невозможным использование его в качестве истребителя и привели к тому, что все шесть машин переименовали в OC-1 (буквой "О" обозначались разведчики). Последний из них списали в апреле 1935 года.
Самолет, исходно являвшийся XF8C-1, позднее использовали для испытаний звездообразного двигателя Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain.
Единственный XF8C-3, построенный в феврале 1928 года, был похож на F8C-1, если не считать мелких доработок и дополнительного военного оборудования, несколько увеличившего массу, из-за чего ухудшились характеристики скороподъемности, практического потолка и дальности. После испытаний XF8C-3 стал еще одним F8C-3. Все машины вскоре получили новое обозначение OC-2.

Curtiss Model 37D Falcon (F8C-3)

Тип: двухместный истребитель и штурмовик
Силовая установка: поршневой двигатель Pratt & Whitney R-1340-B Wasp мощностью 432 л.с. (322 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 232 км/ч на уровне моря крейсерская скорость 176 км/ч на оптимальной высоте начальная скороподъемность 308 м/мин практический потолок 5000 м дальность полета 1051 км
Масса: пустого самолета 1139 кг максимальная взлетная 1894 кг
Размеры: размах верхнего крыла 11,58 м длина 8,51 м высота 3,12 м площадь крыльев 32,61 м'
Вооружение: два синхронных пулемета Browning калибра 7,62 мм в фюзеляже, два таких же пулемета в нижнем крыле плюс до 91 кг подвесного вооружения на двух узлах крепления под нижним крылом

Curtiss Model 49 и Model 61 Helldiver (F8C, O2С, S3C)

XF8C-2, заказанный ВМС одновременно с двумя XF8C-1, фактически был новым самолетом, спроектированным как пикирующий бомбардировщик и получившим наименование Helldiver (позднее Model 49). Внешне XF8C-2 отличался от Falcon тем, что два пулемета для стрельбы вперед переместили с нижнего на уменьшенное в размахе верхнее крыло. XF8C-2 разбился при испытаниях на пикирование в декабре 1928 года, но в августе 1929-го фирма "Curtiss" выпустила идентичную машину. Второй прототип, появившийся в апреле, стал единственным экземпляром модификации XF8C-4 (Model 49А). На втором XF8C-2 и на XF8C-4 стоял закапотированный двигатель Wasp. Они могли нести 227-кг бомбу на специальной качающейся подвеске, выводившей сбрасываемый в пикировании боеприпас за пределы круга, ометаемого винтом. Helldiver имел деревянные крылья и фюзеляж, сваренный из стальных труб. Обшивка - полотно по всем поверхностям. Консоли верхнего крыла обладали ярко выраженной стреловидностью. Было построено 25 F8C-4 (Model 49В), поступивших на вооружение в 1930 году. Helldiver часто участвовал в различных авиашоу для пропаганды морской авиации. Хотя самолет зарекомендовал себя надежным и пригодным к длительной эксплуатации, его характеристики оказались не слишком впечатляющими, и машину вскоре отправили в резерв, а затем сняли с вооружения.

F8C-5: с 1931 года 63 таких самолета получили разведывательные эскадрильи наземного базирования морской пехоты F8C-5 скоро переименовали в O2C-1 позже ВМС получили еще 30 таких машин. Как и F8C-4, большинство из них в 1934 году передали в резервные подразделения
XF8C-6: два F8C-5, временно оснащенные предкрылками и закрылками
Cyclone Helldiver: два самолета с гражданской регистрацией, принадлежавшие компании (позднее Model 49С), аналогичные F8C-5, но с моторами Wright Cyclone и застекленными кабинами экипажа машины изначально имели обозначения ВМС, хотя флот получил их после длительного использования фирмой "Curtiss" один самолет, названный во флоте XF8C-7 (позже XO2C-2, затем O2C-2), использовался как VIP-транспорт второй стал XF8C-8. ВМС закупили еще две идентичные машины, обозначив их O2C-2
XS3C-1: единственный экземпляр Model 61, поставленный ВМС для замены XF8C-8 после его катастрофы. Самолет был модифицирован, получив новые стабилизатор, шасси и двигатель Cyclone мощностью 650 л.с. (485 кВт). Машина рассматривалась как возможный вариант двухместного истребителя и имела неофициальное обозначение XF10C-1

Curtiss Model 49А Helldiver (F8C-4)

Тип: двухместный истребитель и пикирующий бомбардировщик палубного и наземного базирования
Силовая установка: звездообразный поршневой двигатель Pratt & Whitney R-1340-88 Wasp мощностью 450 л.с. (336 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 221 км/ч на уровне моря крейсерская скорость 187 км/ч на оптимальной высоте начальная скороподъемность 314 м/мин практический потолок 6035 м дальность полета 727 км
Масса: пустого самолета 1137 кг максимальная взлетная в варианте истребителя 1713 кг, бомбардировщика - 1832 кг
Размеры: размах верхнего крыла 9,75 м длина 7,92 м высота 3,09 м площадь крыльев 28,61 м2
Вооружение: два курсовых пулемета Browning калибра 7,62 мм и два таких же пулемета на турели в задней кабине плюс до 227 кг бомб на внешней подвеске


The first ship the SOC was assigned to was the USS Marblehead in November 1935 by the end of the decade, the SOC had replaced its predecessor throughout the fleet. Production came to an end in 1938. By 1941, most battleships had transitioned to the Vought OS2U Kingfisher and cruisers were expected to replace their aging SOCs with the third generation SO3C Seamew. The SO3C, however, suffered from a weak engine and plans to adopt it as a replacement were scrapped. The SOC, despite being a craft from an earlier generation, went on to credibly execute its missions of gunfire observation and limited range scouting missions.

Through the first six months of naval service, the SOC was known as the XO3C-1, [2] The designation was changed to SOC when it was decided to merge its scouting and observation roles. The SOC was not called the Seagull until 1941, when the U.S. Navy began the wholesale adoption of popular names for aircraft in addition to their alpha-numeric designations. The name 'Seagull' had earlier been given to two civil Curtiss aircraft, a Curtiss Model 18 and a Model 25, both converted Curtiss MF flying boats. [3]

When operating as a seaplane, returning SOCs would land on the relatively smooth ocean surface created on the sheltered side of the vessel as it made a wide turn, after which the aircraft would be winched back onto the deck. [4]

When the SOC had been replaced by the OS2U Kingfisher, most remaining airframes were converted into trainers, and were used until 1945. [5] But in a strange twist of history, with the failure of the Curtiss SO3C Seamew, many SOCs in second line service were returned to frontline units starting in late 1943 and saw service aboard warships in the combat zone for the rest of World War II. This is one of the few instances in aviation history of an older aircraft type that was retired or sent to second line service, replacing the new aircraft type, that was supposed to replace it. [6]


Related Research Articles

The Curtiss-Wright AT-9 Jeep was a twin-engined advanced trainer aircraft used by the United States during World War II to bridge the gap between single-engined trainers and twin-engined combat aircraft. The AT-9 had a low-wing cantilever monoplane configuration, retractable landing gear and was powered by two Lycoming R-680-9 radial engines.

The Curtiss XP-62 was a prototype heavily armed, high-performance, single-engine fighter aircraft built for the United States Army Air Corps by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation.

The Curtiss XA-14 was a 1930s United States airplane, the first multi-engine attack aircraft tested by the United States Army Air Corps. Carrying a crew of two, it was as fast as the standard pursuit aircraft in service at the time.

The XP-42, was an experimental fighter built by Curtiss Aircraft in the late 1930s to research engine cooling and improving the performance of the Curtiss P-36.

The Auster Avis was a four-seat light aircraft developed from the Auster Autocrat. It featured a redesigned fuselage incorporating four doors and a circular cross-section towards the tail, new undercarriage, and new wing flaps. It was planned in two versions, the Mk 1 for civil use, and the Mk 2 for military and air ambulance duties. However, only two prototypes were built, and Auster abandoned the project in favour of the Auster J-5 Autocar.

The Curtiss-Wright CW-22 was a 1940s American general-purpose advanced training monoplane aircraft built by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. It was operated by the United States Navy as a scout trainer with the designation SNC-1 Falcon.

The Curtiss CR was a racing aircraft designed for the United States Navy in 1921 by Curtiss. It was a conventional single-seater biplane with a monocoque fuselage and staggered single-bay wings of equal span braced with N-struts. Two essentially similar landplane versions were built as the CR-1 and CR-2, which were both eventually converted to seaplanes as the CR-3 in 1923 and CR-4 in 1924. A refined version was developed for the US Army Air Service under the designation R-6. These latter two aircraft featured refined aerodynamics included surface-mounted radiators.

The Curtiss Eagle was an airliner produced in small numbers in the United States shortly after World War I. The aircraft was a conventional biplane with three-bay, unstaggered wings of equal span. The fuselage was a very advanced design for its day, incorporating careful streamlining of its monocoque structure, and offering the crew as well as the passengers a fully enclosed cabin. The Eagle is sometimes named as the first American tri-motor aircraft however Curtiss' own Model H flying boat flew with three engines for a time in 1914 before being converted back to twin-engine configuration.

The Curtiss Model 54 Tanager was an aircraft constructed in 1929 as Curtiss' entry in the Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition.

The Curtiss Fledgling, known internally to Curtiss as the Model 48 and Model 51 was a trainer aircraft developed for the United States Navy in the late 1920s and known in that service as the N2C.

The Curtiss-Wright CW-12 Sport Trainer and CW-16 Light Sport were high-performance training aircraft designed by Herbert Rawdon and Ted Wells and built in the United States in the early 1930s.

The Curtiss-Wright CW-19 was a civil utility aircraft designed in the United States in the mid-1930s and built in small quantities in a number of variants including the CW-23 military trainer prototype.

The Curtiss Model 55 Kingbird was an airliner built in small numbers in the United States in the early 1930s. It was a twin-engine aircraft with a fuselage derived from the single-engine Curtiss Thrush. The Kingbird had two engine nacelles mounted on the struts on either side of the fuselage that braced the wing and the outrigger undercarriage. A distinctive design feature was the aircraft's blunt nose, located behind the propeller arcs. This allowed the engines to be mounted closer to each other and to the aircraft's centerline, therefore minimising asymmetrical thrust in case of an engine failure. For the same reason, the Thrush's single tailfin was replaced by twin tails on the Kingbird, and the main production model, the D-2 fitted a second horizontal stabilizer and elevator between these fins.

Curtiss YP-20 was a United States Army Air Service biplane fighter project developed by Curtiss.

The Curtiss XP-22 Hawk was a 1930s American experimental biplane fighter built by Curtiss for evaluation by the United States Army Air Service.

The International F-17 Sportsman was a 1920s American three-seat open-cockpit biplane designed and manufactured by the International Aircraft Corporation in Long Beach California and Cincinnati, Ohio. 107 aircraft were built, 77 of them at Cincinnati.

The Curtiss XBTC was an experimental single-seat, single-engine torpedo bomber aircraft developed during World War II.

The Curtiss XBT2C was an experimental single-engined dive/torpedo bomber developed during World War II.

The Curtiss P-37 was a fighter aircraft made by Curtiss-Wright in 1937. A development of the Curtiss P-36 Hawk, the P-37 never entered production.

The Curtiss CA-1 was an American five-seat biplane amphibian designed by Frank Courtney and built by Curtiss-Wright at St Louis, Missouri.


Model leter: C • D • E • F • G • H • J • K • L • M • N • PN • JN • R • S

Model nomor: 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 16 • 17 • 18 • 19 • 20 • 21 • 23 • 26 • 28 • 31 • 32 • 33 • 34 • 35 • 36 • 37 • 38 • 39 • 40 • 41 • 42 • 43 • 44 • 47 • 48 • 49 • 50 • 51 • 52 • 53 • 54 • 55 • 56 • 57 • 58 • 59A/59B • 60 • 61 • 62 • 63 • 64 • 66 • 67 • 68 • 69 • 70 • 71 • 72 • 73 • 75 • 76 • 77 • 79 • 81 • 82 • 84 • 85 • 86 • 87 • 88 • 90 • 91 • 94 • 95 • 96 • 97 • 98 •

Model "CW": CW-1 • CW-2 • CW-3 • CW-4 • CW-5 • CW-6 • CW-7 • CW-8 • CW-9 • CW-10 • CW-11 • CW-12 • CW-14 • CW-15 • CW-16 • CW-17 • CW-18 • CW-19 • CW-20 • CW-21 • CW-22 • CW-23 • CW-24 • CW-25 • CW-27 • CW-29 • CW-32

Eksperimental: No. 1 • Model C • Tanager

Pesawat balap: No. 2 • CR • R2C • R3C

Pesawat serba guna: Model D • Model E • Model F • Robin • Thrush

Patroli maritim: Model H • HS-1L and -2L

Pesawat latih: Model L • Model JN • AT-4 Hawk • AT-5 Hawk

Naval Training: NC • N2C

Pesawat tempur: 18 • PW-8 • P-1 • P-2 • P-3 • P-4 • P-5 • P-6 • XP-31 • P-36 • P-40 • XP-46 • XP-53 • YP-60 • XP-62 • XP-71 • XP-87

Naval Fighter: HA • FC • F2C • F3C • F4C • F6C • F7C • F8C • F9C • F10C • F11C • XF12C • F13C • XF14C • XF15C

Airliner: Eagle • Condor II • Kingbird

Naval Scouts/Dive Bomber: CS • S2C • XS3C • S4C • SC • SBC • SB2C • XSB3C • SOC • SO2C • SO3C

Observasi: O-1 • O-12 • O-13 • O-16 • O-18 • O-26 • O-39 • O-40 • O-52

Naval Observasi: OC • O2C • O3C

Pesawat pengebom: Canada • B-2

Naval Bomber: BFC • BF2C • XBTC • XBT2C

Pesawat serang darat: A-3 • A-4 • A-5 • A-6 • A-8 • YA-10 • A-12 • YA-14 • A-25 • XA-43


Development

Curtiss produced six CS-1 prototypes for the Navy in 1923, which were mostly used for engine tests. Two examples of the improved CS-2 were built the following year and set a number of world speed, distance, and endurance records for seaplanes in its class. The Navy ordered both the CS-1 and CS-2 into production, but when Curtiss tendered with a price of $32,000 per aircraft, Martin undercut them with a tender of $25,200 for each CS-1 and $19,863 for each CS-2 and won the contract. Curtiss refused to provide full sets of drawings and data to Martin, so Martin-built machines were in part reverse-engineered from a Curtiss-built CS-1 provided by the Navy. By the time the Martin-produced aircraft were delivered in 1925–26, the Navy's designation system had changed, and they entered service as the SC-1 and SC-2. Martin-built SC-2s suffered from poor handling characteristics and soon earned the nickname "Sea Cow". Meanwhile, the Naval Aircraft Factory made extensive modifications to the two Curtiss CS-2s leading them to be redesignated CS-3. Further development of the design was carried out by Martin as the T3M and T4M, and eventually by Great Lakes as the TG.


Construction

The machine was made from bamboo poles. The fuselage and the wings were braced with steel wire. The drive selected was a water -cooled V8 engine , which Curtiss had previously used in a motorcycle and which directly drove a pusher propeller with a diameter of 2.13 m. The wings were only covered at the top. The ailerons, which were operated by moving the pilot's seat, were suspended between the upper and lower surfaces. In the stern there was a horizontal stabilization surface and the rudder, which was operated by a wheel. The elevator was in the front and was operated by moving the wheel back and forth.


Operational history

The Curtiss CRs enjoyed successful racing careers. Their first major win was at the 1921 Pulitzer Trophy race, where the CR-1 took first place, nearly two minutes ahead of its closest rival, piloted by Bert Acosta with an average speed of 176.75 mph (283.49 km/h). The following year, this aircraft was modified and redesignated CR-2 and joined in the Pulitzer race by a second aircraft built to the same new standard, plus two R-6s flown by Army pilots. These Curtiss aircraft took first through fourth place, the two R-6s followed by the two CR-2s. The race was won by Lt Russell Maughan with an average speed of 205.856 mph (330,172 km/h) with Lt Lester Maitland in second place (198.850 mph/318.936 km/h). Maughan's effort incidentally broke every closed-circuit airspeed record up to 124 mi (200 km). The CR-2s took third and fourth places piloted by Lt Harold Brow (average speed 193.695 mph/310.667 km/h) and Lt Jg Al Williams (average speed 187.996 mph/301.527 km/h).

The Army built upon this success with the R-6s by using the aircraft to break the world airspeed record before 1922 was out, Gen William Mitchell flying one to 224.28 mph (359.72 km/h) on 18 October. In March the following year, an R-6 flown by Russel Maughan lifted the record to 236.587 mph (380.74 km/h).

In 1923, the CR-2s were fitted with floats for the Schneider Trophy race and redesignated CR-3. The aircraft took first and second place, piloted by David Rittenhouse (average speed 177.977 mph, 285.457 km/h) and Rutledge Irvine (173.932 mph, 278.970 km/h). Following this victory, one of the aircraft was further modified as the CR-4 for an attempt on the world airspeed record for seaplanes. It achieved this in 1924 with a speed of 188 mph (117 km/h).


Design and development

In March 1960 the Curtiss-Wright Corporation developed the X-100, a prototype for a new, vertical take-off transport aircraft. The X-100 had a single turboshaft engine, which propelled two tilting-rotors, while at the tail swivelling nozzles used the engine's exhaust gases to give additional control in hovering or slow flight.

From the X-100 Curtiss-Wright developed the larger X-200, of which the United States Air Force ordered two prototypes designated the X-19A.

The X-19 had high-mounted tandem wings. Each wing mounted a 13 ft (4.0 m) propeller that could be rotated through 90 degrees allowing the aircraft to take off and land like a helicopter. The propellers were driven by twin Avco Lycoming T55-L-5 turboshaft engines mounted in the fuselage. [ 1 ]


Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando

Ку́ртіс-Райт С-46 «Комма́ндо» (англ. Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando) — американський військово-транспортний літак часів Другої світової війни.

Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando
Curtiss-Wright CW-20
Призначення: Військово-транспортний літак
Перший політ: 26 березня 1940
Прийнятий на озброєння: 1942
Період використання: 1942—по т.ч.
На озброєнні у: США, Велика Британія
Розробник: Curtiss-Wright
Виробник: Curtiss-Wright Corporation
Всього збудовано: 3 181
Екіпаж: 4 особи
Крейсерська швидкість: 278 км/год
Максимальна швидкість (МШ): 433 км/год
Бойовий радіус: 4750 км
Практична стеля: 8 410 м
Швидкопідйомність: 6,6 м/с
Довжина: 23,27 м
Висота: 6,63 м
Розмах крила: 32,9 м
Площа крила: 126,80 м²
Споряджений: до 50 пасажирів кг
Двигуни: 2× Pratt & Whitney R-2800
Тяга (потужність): 2x2000 к.с.

Після Другої світової війни короткий час використовувався як пасажирський, але був швидко витіснений іншими моделями. Як транспортний використовувався в ВПС США до 1968 року. Його експлуатація як міцного і надійного транспорту триває і в 21-столітті в арктичних районах США і Канади.


Watch the video: Curtiss-Wright (January 2022).