Birth [ edit | edit source ]
Sultan of the Ottomans Mehmed V in Ottoman naval uniform.
He was born at Topkapı Palace, Istanbul. Ώ] Like many other potential heirs to the throne, he was confined for 30 years in the Harems of the palace. For nine of those years he was in solitary confinement. During this time he studied poetry of the old Persian style and was an acclaimed poet. On his ninth birthday he was ceremoniously circumcised in the special Circumcision Room (Sünnet Odasi) of Topkapı Palace.
Mehmed V was born on 2 November 1844 at the Çırağan Palace,  Istanbul.  His father was Sultan Abdulmejid I, and his mother was Gülcemal Kadın, an ethnic Bosnian.  He had two elder sisters, Fatma Sultan,  and Refia Sultan.  After his mother's death in 1851, he and his sisters were entrusted in the care of his father's senior consort Servetseza Kadın.   She had asked Abdulmejid to take the motherless children under her wing, and raise as her own, and carried out the duties of a mother who cares for her children with compassion and concern. 
In 1856, aged twelve, he was ceremoniously circumcised together with his younger half-brothers, Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin, Şehzade Mehmed Burhaneddin, and Şehzade Ahmed Nureddin.  
Mehmed was educated at the palace. Halid Ziya, the chief clerk of the Chamberlain’s office between 1909–1912, described this as being a poor one. Thanks to his comparatively high intelligence, however, he made good use of the education he had and used it to go further. He studied Arabic and Persian, and spoke the latter very well. He took piano lessons from an Italian pianist and calligraphy lessons from a famous Ottoman calligrapher, Mustafa İzzet Efendi (1801–1876). 
His reign began on 27 April 1909, but he was largely a figurehead with no real political power, as a consequence of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 (which restored the Ottoman Constitution and Parliament) and especially the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, which brought the dictatorial triumvirate of the Three Pashas to power. At the age of 64, Mehmed V was the oldest person to ascend the Ottoman throne.
In 1911, he embarked on an imperial tour of Selânik (today Thessaloniki) and Manastır (today Bitola), stopping by Florina on the way. He also visited Üsküp (Skopje) and Priştine (Pristina), where he attended Friday prayers at the Tomb of Sultan Murad. The visit was recorded on film and photographs by the Manaki brothers. It would soon prove to be the last visit of an Ottoman sultan to the Rumelian provinces before the catastrophe of the Balkan Wars the following year.
Under his rule, the Ottoman Empire lost all its remaining territory in North Africa (Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan) to Italy in the Italo-Turkish War and nearly all its European territories (except for a small strip of land west of Constantinople) in the First Balkan War. The Ottomans made some small gains in the following war, recapturing the peninsula comprising East Thrace up to Edirne, but this was only partial consolation for the Turks: the bulk of Ottoman territories that they had fought to keep had been lost forever. 
The sudden loss of these enormous swathes of land, which had been Ottoman territory for centuries and were ceded to its opponents within a span of only two years, was deeply shocking to the Ottoman Turks and resulted in massive popular backlash against the government, culminating in the 1913 Ottoman coup d'etat.
Despite his preference that the country stayed out of further conflict, Mehmed V's most significant political act was to formally declare jihad against the Entente Powers (Allies of World War I) on 14 November 1914, following the Ottoman government's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.  He was actually said to look with disfavour on the pro-German policy of Enver Pasha,  but could do little to prevent war due to the sultanate's diminished influence since the overthrow of Abdülhamit II in 1909.
This was the last genuine proclamation of jihad in history by a Caliph, as the Caliphate was abolished in 1924. As a direct result of the declaration of war, the British annexed Cyprus and the Khedivate of Egypt outright these provinces had at least been under nominal Turkish rule. The proclamation had no noticeable effect on the war, despite the fact that many Muslims lived in Ottoman territories. Some Arabs eventually joined the British forces against the Ottomans with the Arab Revolt in 1916.
Mehmed V hosted Kaiser Wilhelm II, his World War I ally, in Constantinople on 15 October 1917. He was made Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia on 27 January 1916, and of the German Empire on 1 February 1916. He was also made Generalfeldmarschall of Austria-Hungary on 19 May 1918.
Primary Documents - Proclamation of Sultan Mehmed V, November 1914
Reproduced below is the text of Sultan Mehmed V in which, having earlier invoked the holy Fevta (a form of verdict in Muslim theology), he called Muslims to the aid of the Ottoman (and German and Austro-Hungarian) cause now that Turkey had finally abandoned her initial policy of neutrality and fallen in with the Central Powers at the close of October 1914.
The Allies had long feared the issuance of a Fetva, worried that it might indeed be acted upon by Muslims throughout the world (notably in India and Egypt) in the event however it passed largely without action.
Proclamation by Sultan Mehmed V, November 1914
Immediately after the war between the Great Powers began, I called you to arms in order to be able in case of trouble to protect the existence of empire and country from any assault on the part of our enemies, who are only awaiting the chance to attack us suddenly and unexpectedly as they have always done.
While we were thus in a state of armed neutrality, a part of the Russian fleet, which was going to lay mines at the entrance of the straits of the Black Sea, suddenly opened fire against a squadron of our own fleet at the time engaged in manoeuvres.
While we were expecting reparation from Russia for this unjustified attack, contrary to international law, the empire just named, as well as its allies, recalled their ambassadors and severed diplomatic relations with our country.
The fleets of England and France have bombarded the straits of the Dardanelles, and the British fleet has shelled the harbour of Akbah on the Red Sea.
In the face of such successive proofs of wanton hostility we have been forced to abandon the peaceful attitude for which we always strove, and now in common with our allies, Germany and Austria, we turn to arms in order to safeguard our lawful interests.
The Russian Empire during the last three hundred years has caused our country to suffer many losses in territory, and when we finally arose to that sentiment of awakening and regeneration which would increase our national welfare and our power, the Russian Empire made every effort to destroy our attempts, either with war or with numerous machinations and intrigues.
Russia, England, and France never for a moment ceased harbouring ill-will against our Caliphate, to which millions of Mussulmans, suffering under the tyranny of foreign dominations, are religiously and whole-heartedly devoted, and it was always these powers that started every misfortune that came upon us.
Therefore, in this mighty struggle which now we are undertaking, we once for all will put an end to the attacks made from one side against the Caliphate, and from the other against the existence of our country.
The wounds inflicted, with the help of the Almighty, by my fleet in the Black Sea, and by my army in the Dardanelles, in Akbah, and on the Caucasian frontiers against our enemies, have strengthened in us the conviction that our sacred struggle for a right cause will triumph. The fact, moreover, that today the countries and armies of our enemies are being crushed under the heels of our allies is a good sign, making our conviction as regards final success still stronger.
In this sacred war and struggle, which we began against the enemies who have undermined our religion and our holy fatherland, never for a single moment cease from strenuous effort and from self-abnegation.
Throw yourselves against the enemy as lions, bearing in mind that the very existence of our empire, and of 300,000,000 Moslems whom I have summoned by sacred Fetva to a supreme struggle, depend on your victory.
The hearty wishes and prayers of 300,000,000 innocent and tortured faithful, whose faces are turned in ecstasy and devotion to the Lord of the universe in the mosques and the shrine of the Kaabah, are with you.
No army in the history of the world was ever honoured with a duty as sacred and as great as is yours. By fulfilling it, show that you are the worthy descendants of the Ottoman Armies that in the past made the world tremble, and make it impossible for any foe of our faith and country to tread on our ground, and disturb the peace of the sacred soil of Yemen, where the inspiring tomb of our prophet lies. Prove beyond doubt to the enemies of the country that there exist an Ottoman army and navy which know how to defend their faith, their country and their military honour, and how to defy death for their sovereign.
Right and loyalty are on our side, and hatred and tyranny on the side of our enemies, and therefore there is no doubt that the Divine help and assistance of the just God and the moral support of our glorious Prophet will be on our side to encourage us. I feel convinced that from this struggle we shall emerge as an empire that has made good the losses of the past and is once more glorious and powerful.
Do not forget that you are brothers in arms of the strongest and bravest armies of the world, with whom we now are fighting shoulder to shoulder. Let those of you who are to die a martyr's death be messengers of victory to those who have gone before us, and let the victory be sacred and the sword be sharp of those of you who are to remain in life.
Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
Mehmed V, original name Mehmed Reşad, (born Nov. 2, 1844, Constantinople—died July 3, 1918, Constantinople), Ottoman sultan from 1909 to 1918, whose reign was marked by the absolute rule of the Committee of Union and Progress and by Turkey’s defeat in World War I.
Having lived in seclusion most of his life, Mehmed Reşad became sultan after his brother Abdülhamid II was forced to abdicate. A kind and gentle man, educated in traditional Islāmic subjects and Persian literature, he showed a keen interest in Ottoman and Islāmic history nevertheless, he lacked the ability to govern. Attempting to rule as a constitutional monarch, he surrendered all authority to the Committee of Union and Progress, the liberal–nationalist organization of the Young Turk movement.
On the advice of the committee, the Sultan went on a goodwill tour of Thrace and Albania (1911). In the two Balkan Wars during 1912–13, however, the Ottomans lost almost all their European possessions, and, in the war with Italy (1911–12), Tripoli was lost. Although Mehmed was opposed, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary, and, as caliph, he declared holy war and invited all Muslims, especially those under the rule of the Allies, to rally to the support of Ottomans. By the time of Mehmed’s death, most of the empire had fallen to the Allies, and six months later Constantinople was under military occupation.
His reign began on 27 April 1909, but he was largely a figurehead with no real political power, as a consequence of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 (which restored the Ottoman Constitution and Parliament) and especially the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, which brought the dictatorial triumvirate of the Three Pashas to power.
Under his rule, the Ottoman Empire lost all its remaining territory in North Africa (Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan) to Italy in the Italo-Turkish War and nearly all its European territories (except for a small strip of land west of Constantinople) in the First Balkan War.
Mehmed V's most significant political act was to formally declare jihad against the Entente Powers (Allies of World War I) on 14 November 1914, following the Ottoman government's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.  He was actually said to look with disfavor on the pro-German policy of Enver Pasha. 
This was the last genuine proclamation of jihad in history by a Caliph, as the Caliphate lasted until 1924. The proclamation had no noticeable effect on the war, despite the fact that many Muslims lived in Ottoman territories. The Arabs eventually joined the British forces against the Ottomans with the Arab Revolt in 1916.
Mehmed V hosted Kaiser Wilhelm II, his World War I ally, in Constantinople on 15 October 1917. He was made Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia on 27 January 1916, and of the German Empire on 1 February 1916.
Mehmed V was born on 2 November 1844 at the Çırağan Palace, Β] Istanbul. Γ] His father was Sultan Abdulmejid I, and his mother was Gülcemal Kadın, an ethnic Bosnian. Δ] He had two elder sisters, Fatma Sultan, Ε] and Refia Sultan. Ζ] After his mother's death in 1851, he and his sisters were entrusted in the care of his father's senior consort Servetseza Kadın. Η] ⎖] She had asked Abdulmejid to take the motherless children under her wing, and raise as her own, and carried out the duties of a mother who cares for her children with compassion and concern. ⎗]
In 1856, aged twelve, he was ceremoniously circumcised together with his younger half-brothers, Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin, Şehzade Mehmed Burhaneddin, and Şehzade Ahmed Nureddin. ⎘] ⎙]
Mehmed was educated at the palace. Halid Ziya, the chief clerk of the Chamberlain’s office between 1909–1912, described this as being a poor one. Thanks to his comparatively high intelligence, however, he made good use of the education he had and used it to go further. He studied Arabic and Persian, and spoke the latter very well. He took piano lessons from an Italian pianist and calligraphy lessons from a famous Ottoman calligrapher, Mustafa İzzet Efendi (1801–1876). ⎚]
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
Abdülhamid II, (born September 21, 1842, Constantinople [now Istanbul, Turkey]—died February 10, 1918, Constantinople), Ottoman sultan from 1876 to 1909, under whose autocratic rule the reform movement of Tanzimat (Reorganization) reached its climax and who adopted a policy of pan-Islamism in opposition to Western intervention in Ottoman affairs.
A son of Sultan Abdülmecid I, he came to the throne at the deposition of his mentally deranged brother, Murad V, on August 31, 1876. He promulgated the first Ottoman constitution on December 23, 1876, primarily to ward off foreign intervention at a time when the Turks’ savage suppression of the Bulgarian uprising (May 1876) and Ottoman successes in Serbia and Montenegro had aroused the indignation of Western powers and Russia. After a disastrous war with Russia (1877), Abdülhamid was convinced that little help could be expected from the Western powers without their intrusion into Ottoman affairs. He dismissed the Parliament, which had met in March 1877, and suspended the constitution in February 1878. Thenceforth, for 30 years, he ruled from his seclusion at Yıldız Palace (in Constantinople), assisted by a system of secret police, an expanded telegraph network, and severe censorship.
After the French occupation of Tunisia (1881) and assumption of power by the British in Egypt (1882), Abdülhamid turned for support to the Germans. In return, concessions were made to Germany, culminating in permission (1899) to build the Baghdad Railway. Eventually, the suppression of the Armenian revolt (1894) and the turmoil in Crete, which led to the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, once more resulted in European intervention.
Abdülhamid used pan-Islamism to solidify his internal absolutist rule and to rally Muslim opinion outside the empire, thus creating difficulties for European imperial powers in their Muslim colonies. The Hejaz Railway, financed by Muslim contributions from all over the world, was a concrete expression of his policy.
Internally, the most far-reaching of his reforms were in education: 18 professional schools were established Darülfünun, later known as the University of Istanbul, was founded (1900) and a network of secondary, primary, and military schools was extended throughout the empire. Also, the Ministry of Justice was reorganized, and railway and telegraph systems were developed.
Discontent with Abdülhamid’s despotic rule and resentment against European intervention in the Balkans, however, led to the military revolution of the Young Turks in 1908. After a short-lived reactionary uprising (April 1909), Abdülhamid was deposed, and his brother was proclaimed sultan as Mehmed V.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Zeidan, Assistant Editor.
Main keywords of the article below: resulted, uzun, led, mehmet, decisive, empire, successful, hasan, ottoman, victory, 1473, battle, 1, otlukbeli, campaign, mehmed.
Then Mehmed led a successful campaign against Uzun Hasan in 1473 that resulted in the decisive victory of the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Otlukbeli.  Mehmed's thirty-one year rule and numerous wars expanded the Ottoman Empire to include Constantinople, the Turkish kingdoms and territories of Asia Minor, Bosnia, the Kingdom of Serbia, and Albania.  The Venetians and Shkodrans resisted the assaults and continued to hold the fortress until Venice ceded Shkodra to the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Constantinople as a condition of ending the war. 
Impressed by Vlad's vast knowledge of the mindset and inner workings of the Ottoman Empire, as well as his hatred towards the Turks and new Sultan Mehmed II, Hunyadi reconciled with his former enemy and tried to make Vlad III his own adviser, but Vlad refused.  The early Ottoman Empire had no regulated succession, and according to Turkish tradition, every son could succeed his father.  Serbian independence survived him for only two years, when the Ottoman Empire formally annexed his lands following dissension among his widow and three remaining sons.  After the capture of the Genoese towns, the Ottoman Sultan held Meñli I Giray captive, later releasing him in return for accepting Ottoman suzerainty over the Crimean Khans and allowing them to rule as tributary princes of the Ottoman Empire. 
Biography His year of birth is not known. 1403: Following the death of Bayezid 1, Timur Lenk divided the defeated Ottoman Empire between 3 of Bayezid's sons, Murad in Amasya (centre of today's Turkey), Isa in Bursa (western Turkey) and Süleyman in Rumelia (Balkans). 1404- 05: Isa is defeated and Mehmed takes control over Bursa.  While not being among the most celebrated sultans, Mehmed 1 is still among the most important ones in the Ottoman Empire: It was him who succeeded in reunifying the dismembered territories after the defeat to Timur Lenk at Ankara in 1402. 
Kemal Pasha proclaimed the abolition of the sultanate and Ottoman Empire on November 1, 1922, and Sultan Mehmet VI fled from Istanbul on a British ship on November 17, 1922.  After many years of decline, the Ottoman Empire finally thrived again under Sultan Mehmed IV. The men who were responsible for the brief revival of Ottoman power under Mehmed were the Grand Viziers Koprulu Mehmed Pasha and his son, Fazil Ahmed Pasha.  Koprulu Mehmed Pasha also implemented reforms which made the brief revival of the Ottoman Empire possible under Mehmed IV. He removed incompetent and corrupt viziers, judges, and provincial administrators.  Mehmed I, also called "elebi Sultan Mehmed, (died May 26, 1421, Edirne, Ottoman Empire), Ottoman sultan who reunified the dismembered Ottoman territories following the defeat of Ankara (1402).  Mehmed II, the Conqueror (ca. 1432-1481) was a Turkish sultan who conquered Constantinople and ruthlessly consolidated and enlarged the Ottoman Empire with a military crusade into Asia and Europe.  Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and conqueror of Constantinople and the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. 
Mehmed II eventually reversed the momentum of Skanderbeg, by creating an autonomous Albanian Muslims force under the leadership of Iljaz Hoxha, Hamza Kastrioti and the Albanian Janissary battalion, the new force eventually captured Kruje and was indeed loyal to the Sultan and the entire Ottoman Empire.  Mehmed II's oath was entered into force in the Ottoman Empire on May 28, 1463.  Although Mehmed was opposed, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary, and, as caliph, he declared holy war and invited all Muslims, especially those under the rule of the Allies, to rally to the support of Ottomans.  The Ottoman Empire of the mid-17th century had been in decline since the reign of Selim II. Incompetent and corrupt people held government positions over the years, while powerful harem women, viziers, and eunuchs dominated the Sultan’s court.  Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries.  A great military leader, he captured Constantinople and conquered the territories in Anatolia and the Balkans that comprised the Ottoman Empire ’s heartland for the next four centuries.  Whether reviled for his brutality and his fervor or saluted for these successes, Mehmed II, the Conqueror, affirmed the authority of the sultanate and secured the character of the Ottoman Empire.  He led a successful campaign against Uzun Hasan in 1473 which resulted with the decisive victory of the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Otlukbeli.  Each shahzade was sent to a "sanjak" (administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire) an equal distance from the capital after the age of 12. 
Mehmed II, officially Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, Caliph of Islam, Caesar of Rome (30 March 1432 - 1 July 1491) ( Ottoman Turkish : محمد ثانى), was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 until his death.  Mehmet II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد الثانى Meḥmed-i s̠ānī, Turkish: II. Mehmet),(also known as el-Fātiḥ (الفاتح), "the Conqueror", in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Known as Mahomet II in early modern Europe) (March 30, 1432, Edirne - May 3, 1481, Hünk rçayırı, near Gebze) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Rûm until the conquest) for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to 1481.  Because the Greek Archons want to become a part of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmet II swears no harm to the people and their belongings pledging loyalty to the Sultan. 
By joining the Ottomans, Mehmet swears to leave the Greeks in peace, while making them better/stronger than before, due to them joining the Empire. 
Mehmed VI, original name in Turkish Latin alphabet Mehmed Vahdettin (January 14, 1861 - May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918-1922.  Portrait of Murad III (1546-1595), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, illustration from Turkish Memories, Arabic manuscript, Cicogna Codex, 17th century.  The executioners of the Ottoman Empire were never noted for their mercy just ask the teenage Sultan Osman II, who in May 1622 suffered an excruciating death by "compression of the testicles"as contemporary chronicles put itat the hands of an assassin known as Pehlivan the Oil Wrestler.  Newspaper illustration of Abdülhamit (Abdul Hamid) II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from a 1907 article entitled "The Sour Sick Sultan as He Is". 
Mehmed VI took power at a critical time, as the victorious allies of World War One were dealing with a defeated Ottoman Empire and their nationalist movement.  When the Ottoman Empire sprang up in the early 1300s as a small Turkish beylik in Western Anatolia, it threatened the security of the Byzantines and their capital, Constantinople.  He conquered Constantinople and a host of other territory which shaped the form of the Ottoman Empire and led to its dominance over Anatolia and the Balkans. 
Capital punishment was so common in the Ottoman Empire that there was a Fountain of Execution in the First Court, where the chief executioner and his assistant went to wash their hands after decapitating their victimsritual strangulation being reserved for members of the royal family and their most senior officials. 
During the war the Ottoman Empire was dominated by Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha and Kemal Pasha while Sultan Mehmed V was left with mostly ceremonial duties such as hosting a visit by Kaiser Wilhelm II in Constantinople on October 15, 1917.  He was succeeded by his brother Mehmed VI as Sultan but within 6 months the war would be over and Constantinople itself would be under Allied occupation with the Ottoman Empire carved up into mandates under France and Britain.  Born on 14 January 1861 Mehmed - original name Mehmed Vahideddin - was unlike the brother he succeeded as Sultan, Mehmed V, in that he was both intelligent and politically capable of ruling the Ottoman Empire of his own accord without the backing of the Young Turks.  On April 27, 1909 Mehmed Reshad was installed as Mehmed V, Great Sultan and Padishah of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam etc. However, with the nationalist "Young Turks" faction still holding the real power he was to remain a relative figurehead when it came to the actual decision making.  Sultan Mehmed VI (1861-1926) served as the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1918 until his overthrow in 1922.  Succeeding his brother on 3 July 1918 Mehmed VI presided over the terminal decline of the Ottoman Empire.  Notes - Title translated from album caption. - Captioned in Ottoman Turkish and French. - No. 43. - No. 943. - In album: Topkapı Sarayı, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. - Forms part of: Abdul-Hamid II Collection (Library of Congress).  ""The present terrour of the world’? Contemporary Views of the Ottoman Empire, ca. 1600," History 72/234 (1987), 20-37 Christine Woodhead, "Murad III and the Historians: Representations of Ottoman Imperial Authority in Late 16th-Century Historiography," Legitimizing the Order: The Ottoman Rhetoric of State Power, Hakan Karateke and Maurus Reinkowski (eds.) (Leiden, 2005), 85-98. 
Mehmed II's first campaigns after Constantinople were in the direction of Serbia, which had been an Ottoman vassal state since the Battle of Kosovo in 1389.  Historical photo of Fatih Mosque, built by order of Sultan Mehmed II in Constantinople, the first imperial mosque built in the city after the Ottoman conquest.  After Skanderbeg died, Mehmed II personally led the siege of Shkodra in 1478-79, of which early Ottoman chronicler Aşıkpaşazade (1400-81) wrote, "All the conquests of Sultan Mehmed were fulfilled with the seizure of Shkodra." 
After more years of incompetent rule by the despots, their failure to pay their annual tribute to the Sultan, and finally their own revolt against Ottoman rule, Mehmed entered the Morea in May 1460.  In spring 1466, Sultan Mehmed marched with a large army against the Albanians and their leader, Skenderbeg, who had long resisted the Ottomans, and had repeatedly sought assistance from Italy.  According to the contemporary Ottoman historian Neşri, "Sultan Mehmed created all of Istanbul".  After this conquest, Mehmed moved the Ottoman capital from Adrianople to Constantinople.  Before the final siege of Constantinople Mehmed ordered Ottoman troops to attack the Morea.  Mehmed the Conqueror took the step of converting the religious scholars who were part of the Ottoman madrasas into salaried employees of the Ottoman bureaucracy who were loyal to him. 
The fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun, he fought with his brothers over control of the Ottoman realm in the Ottoman Interregnum (1402-1413).  Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI died without producing an heir, and had Constantinople not fallen to the Ottomans he likely would have been succeeded by the sons of his deceased elder brother.  After the conquest of Constantinople, Genoese communications were disrupted, and when the Crimean Tatars asked for help from the Ottomans, they responded with an invasion of the Genoese towns, led by Gedik Ahmed Pasha in 1475, bringing Kaffa and the other trading towns under their control.  The Sultan sent the Bey of Nicopolis, Hamza Pasha, to make peace and, if necessary, eliminate Vlad III. Vlad III set an ambush the Ottomans were surrounded and almost all of them caught and impaled, with Hamza Pasha impaled on the highest stake, as befit his rank.  Ottoman reaction was swift and decisive: Mehmed II dispatched his Grand Vizier, Mahmud Pasha Angelović, with an army against the Venetians.  Mehmed II recovered Ottoman power over the other Turkish states, and these conquests allowed him to push further into Europe.  When Mehmed II was eleven years old he was sent to Amasya to govern and thus gain experience, as per the custom of Ottoman rulers before his time.  In 1459, Mehmed II sent envoys to Vlad to urge him to pay a delayed tribute of 10,000 ducats and 500 recruits into the Ottoman forces.  When Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he devoted himself to strengthening the Ottoman navy and made preparations for an attack on Constantinople.  After this, the Ottomans captured the Wallachian capital T rgoviște and Mehmed II withdrew, having left Radu as ruler of Wallachia.  In 1456, Peter III Aaron agreed to pay the Ottomans an annual tribute of 2,000 gold ducats to ensure his southern borders, thus becoming the first Moldavian ruler to accept the Turkish demands.  He led a sizable army from Bursa by land and the Ottoman navy by sea, first to Sinope, joining forces with Ismail's brother Ahmed (the Red).  He failed to take the Acropolis and was forced to retreat to Patras, the capital of Peloponnese and the seat of the Ottoman bey, which was being besieged by a joint force of Venetians and Greeks.  In the Aegean, the Venetians tried to take Lesbos in the spring of 1464, and besieged the capital Mytilene for six weeks, until the arrival of an Ottoman fleet under Mahmud Pasha on 18 May forced them to withdraw.  A few years later, Ottoman vizier (later grand vizier ) Gedik Ahmet Pasha captured the coastal region of the beylik.  In 1456, three years after the Ottomans had conquered Constantinople, they threatened Hungary by besieging Belgrade.  The Ottomans since the early 15th century tried to bring Wallachia ( Ottoman Turkish : والاچیا ) under their control by putting their own candidate on the throne, but each attempt ended in failure.  Allegedly disguising himself as a Turkish Sipahi and utilizing his command of the Turkish language and customs, Vlad III infiltrated Ottoman camps, ambushed, massacred or captured several Ottomans forces.  Other sources state that joint Ottoman and Crimean Tartar forces "occupied Bessarabia and took Akkerman, gaining control of the southern mouth of the Danube.  Leaving aside the underage siblings, this left four princes--Mehmed, Süleyman, İsa, and Musa, to contend over control of the remaining Ottoman territories in the civil war known as the " Ottoman Interregnum ".  The despot of Serbia, Lazar Branković, died in 1458, and a civil war broke out among his heirs that resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Serbia in 1459.  After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. 
Mehmed II couldn't subjugate Albania while Skanderbeg was alive, even though he twice (1466 and 1467) led the Ottoman armies himself against Kruj".  The younger son, renamed Mesih Pasha, became Admiral of the Ottoman fleet and Sanjak-bey (Governor) of the Province of Gallipoli.  The new alliance launched a two-pronged offensive against the Ottomans: a Venetian army, under the Captain General of the Sea Alvise Loredan, landed in the Morea, while Matthias Corvinus invaded Bosnia.  According to the Byzantine historian Michael Critobulus, hostilities broke out after an Albanian slave of the Ottoman commander of Athens fled to the Venetian fortress of Coron ( Koroni ) with 100,000 silver aspers from his master's treasure.  The Ottomans had already invaded the region under Murad II, destroying the Byzantine defences -- the Hexamilion wall -- at the Isthmus of Corinth in 1446.  Mara Brankovic (Mara Hatun), the former younger wife of Murad II, told a Venetian envoy that the invasion had been worst ever defeat for the Ottomans.  In 1463, after a dispute over the tribute paid annually by the Bosnian Kingdom to the Ottomans, he sent for help from the Venetians.  Following Ottoman custom, when he reached adolescence in 1399, he was sent to gain experience as provincial governor over the Rûm Eyalet (central northern Anatolia ), recently conquered from its Eretnid rulers.  The Ottoman ruler had a connection with the Serbian Despotate - one of Murad II's wives was Mara Branković - and he used that fact to claim some Serbian islands. 
According to another battle description, the defending Moldavian forces repelled several Ottoman attacks with steady fire from hand-guns.  Two centuries later, the well-known Ottoman itinerant Evliya "elebi gave a list of groups introduced into the city with their respective origins.  They ceded Shkodra, which had been under Ottoman siege for many months, as well as other territories on the Dalmatian coastline, and they relinquished control of the Greek islands of Negroponte ( Euboea ) and Lemnos. 
Mehmed had installed Gennadius Scholarius, a staunch antagonist of the West, as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople-New Rome with all the ceremonial elements, ethnarch (or milletbashi ) status and rights of property that made him the second largest landlord in the said empire by the Sultan himself in 1454, and in turn Gennadius II recognized Mehmed the Conqueror as successor to the throne.  Mehmed issued orders across his empire that Muslims, Christians, and Jews should resettle in the City demanding that five thousand households needed to be transferred to Constantinople by September.  After the Fall of Constantinople, Mehmed would also go on to conquer the Despotate of Morea in the Peloponnese in 1460, and the Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia in 1461.  Soon after Mehmed began his reign, his brother Mustafa "elebi, who had originally been captured along with their father Bayezid I during the Battle of Ankara and held captive in Samarkand, hiding in Anatolia during the Interregnum, reemerged and asked Mehmed to partition the empire with him. 
Under the leadership of Uzun Hasan, this kingdom gained power in the East but because of their strong relations with the Christian powers like the Empire of Trebizond and the Republic of Venice, and the alliance between the Turcomans and the Karamanid tribe, Mehmed saw them as a threat to his own power.  Mehmed the Conqueror transitioned the empire away from the Ghazi mentality that emphasizes ancient traditions and ceremonies in governance and moved the empire towards a centralized bureaucracy largely made of officials of devşirme background. 
After the conquest of Constantinople, Mehmed claimed the title " Caesar " of the Roman Empire ( Qayser-i Rûm ), based on the assertion that Constantinople had been the seat and capital of the Roman Empire since 330 AD, and whoever possessed the Imperial capital was the ruler of the Empire. 
From all over the Islamic empire, prisoners of war and deported people were sent to the city these people were called "Sürgün" in Turkish ( Greek : σουργούνιδες sourgounides "immigrants").  As a result of the Battle of Ankara and other civil wars, the population of the empire had become unstable and traumatized. 
At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul ) and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire. 
In 1481 Mehmed marched with the Ottoman army, but upon reaching Maltepe, Istanbul he became ill.  In 1470 Mehmed personally led an Ottoman army to besiege Negroponte. 
Mehmed II ( Ottoman Turkish : محمد ثانى , Meḥmed-i s ānī Modern Turkish : II. Mehmet Turkish pronunciation: 30 March 1432 - 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet ), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.  Mehmet Akif Alakurt plays Mehmed II in Turkish series Fatih (2013). 
Istanbul's Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (completed 1988), which crosses the Bosporus Straits, is named after him, and his name and picture appeared on the Turkish 1000 lira note from 1986 to 1992. 
Mehmed II was born on 30 March 1432, in Edirne, then the capital city of the Ottoman state.  Mehmed II is recognized as the first Sultan to codify criminal and constitutional law, long before Suleiman the Magnificent he thus established the classical image of the autocratic Ottoman sultan.  Starting from the province of Rûm he managed to bring first Anatolia and then the European territories ( Rumelia ) under his control, reuniting the Ottoman state by 1413, and ruling it until his death in 1421.  An Ottoman army under Hadim Pasha (governor of Rumelia) was sent in 1475 to punish Stephen for his meddling in Wallachia however, the Ottomans suffered a great defeat at the Battle of Vaslui.  A new Ottoman army under Mahmud Pasha then forced Corvinus to withdraw, but Jajce was not retaken for many years after. 
It was only after receiving this letter that Murad II led the Ottoman army and won the Battle of Varna in 1444. 
He then sent another brother, Musa, against Süleyman. 1410: Musa defeats Süleyman, but betrays Murad and declares himself sultan and starts reconquering the Ottoman territories in the Balkans. 1413: After joining forces with the Byzantine emperor, Mehmed succeeds in defeating Musa at Camurlu.  At the end of this civil war, Mehmed I Chelebi, the youngest son of the sultan, defeated his brothers and became the sole holder of the Ottoman throne in 1413.  In his letter to the son of Timur, Mehmed I Chelebi, the fourth sultan of the Ottomans, said: "My ancestors handled some inconveniences with their experience.  Born in the Ottoman capital of Edirne, Mehmed II was the son of Sultan Murad II. He was trained as a ruler in the province of Amasya, and at the age of twelve became the titular Ottoman ruler after his father abdicated his throne.  The young Mehmed already entertained the bold notion of attacking Constantinople, the capital of the waning Byzantine Empire that sat in the midst of Ottoman territories on the straits between the Mediterranean and Black seas.  Although Mehmed II died unsatisfied in his goal to build a universal empire, he had established the primacy of the Ottoman Turks within the Muslim world.  By 1475, he had made the Crimea a vassal state of the Empire, making the entire sea virtually an Ottoman lake. 
Mehmed II recovered the Ottoman power on other Turkish states.  When Mehmed II ascended the throne in 1451 he devoted himself to strengthening the Ottoman navy, and in the same year made preparations for the taking of Constantinople.  When Ottoman forces attacked the Venetian holding of Argos in Greece that same year, Venice, with the support of Hungary, declared war against Mehmed II.  During the reign of Mehmed II, the Balkan forces were not completely surpassed by the Ottoman war machine, but could not stop it either. 
Hard-pressed to rally troops behind im for an assault against Christians in the Balkans, Mehmed ordered his father out of retirement to lead the Turks in the Battle of Varna in 1444, a complete victory for the Ottoman forces.  Mehmed ruled in Amasya, İsa in Bursa, and Süleyman in Rumelia (Balkan lands under Ottoman control).  Initial expeditions into Serbia brought it more closely under Ottoman control, but the first large-scale military operation after the fall of Constantinople was directed against Hungary.  Later, in April 1458, he set forth again at the head of an army toward Greece, and in August he entered Athens, which was to remain under Ottoman control for over 300 years.  When Mehmed II was 11 years old he was sent to Amasya to govern and thus gain experience, as per the custom of Ottoman rulers before his time.  Following the Battle of Ankara (1402), in which the Ottomans were defeated, the state fell into an authority gap and the four shahzades of Bayezid I, that each had thousands of supporters, fought for the throne for years.  In 1444, Christian forces advanced into Ottoman territory on the second crusade in two years. 
He improved roads and canals in his newly conquered capital and also raised important structures, including the Topkapi Palace, which remained the home of the sultans throughout Ottoman history.  Ottoman Shaikh al-Islam (Grand Mufti) Es'ad Efendi did not issue a fatwa, and the sultan took it from Qadi'asker Tashkopruzade. 
Specifically, he felt, "The conquest of (Constantinople) is …essential to the future and the safety of the Ottoman state."  The conqueror reorganized the Ottoman government and, for the first time, codified the criminal law and the laws relating to his subjects in one code, whereas the constitution was elaborated in another, the two codes forming the nucleus of all subsequent legislation.  Mehmed II, byname Mehmed Fatih (Turkish: Mehmed the Conqueror), (born March 30, 1432, Adrianople, Thrace, Ottoman Empire--died May 3, 1481, Hunk rçayırı, near Maltepe, near Constantinople), Ottoman sultan from 1444 to 1446 and from 1451 to 1481. 
Mehmed II helped Radu ᘮpeş, the brother of Vlad, to take the revenge of the Ottoman military losses.  Mehmed IV was removed as Ottoman sultan in November 1687, and he was succeeded by his brother, Suleiman II. Mehmed died in Edirne on January 6, 1693.  Upon the death of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror in 1481, his younger son, Cem Sultan, sent his older brother Bayezid, the next Ottoman Sultan, a message suggesting that they share the country between them.  Mehmed Celebi, the third son of the Ottoman sultan Murad II, was born on March 30, 1432 (or 1430, as cited in some sources).  Mehmed V, original name Mehmed Reşad, (born Nov. 2, 1844, Constantinople--died July 3, 1918, Constantinople), Ottoman sultan from 1909 to 1918, whose reign was marked by the absolute rule of the Committee of Union and Progress and by Turkey’s defeat in World War I.  Shahzade Mustafa and Shahzade Mahmud, the son of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III, were not personally involved in any uprising, but were unwary.  His son, young Mehmed, was brought out of the harem so he could be crowned as Ottoman Sultan in 1648. 
In Anatolia he reestablished Ottoman control over much of the western provinces and reduced the Karaman principality (in Konya) to submission. 
For Mehmed, who immediately became the most important sultan in the Muslim world, it marked the beginning of a dream to create a universal empire based on his new capital, henceforth to be called Istanbul.  This left the empire in the hands of the competent and loyal Koprulu Mehmed Pasha.  Mehmed had assumed the title of Kayser-i Rum (Roman Caesar) and, at the same time, described himself as "the lord of the two lands and the two seas" (i.e., Anatolia and the Balkans, the Aegean and Black seas ), a designation that reflected his idea of the empire.  The empire that Mehmed inherited was one of the largest at that time.  In 1451 Murad II died and Mehmed became the unquestioned leader of the empire.  Under Mehmed I (ruled 1413-20) and Murad II (ruled 1421-51), there was a new period of expansion in which Bayezid’s empire was restored and new territories were added. 
With the leadership of Uzun Hasan, this Turcoman kingdom gained power in the East but because of their strong relations with the Christian powers like Empire of Trebizond and the Republic of Venice and the alliance between Turcomans and Karamanoğlu Tribe, Mehmed saw them as a threat to his own power.  Mehmed II tried to create a single political entity in Anatolia by capturing Turkish states called Beyliks and the Greek Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia and allied himself with the Golden Horde in the Crimea.  There were continuing raids into the Balkans, but most significantly, the Empire was involved in another struggle in southeastern Anatolia with the sultan of Syria and Egypt.  The first years of the prince were spent in the harem of the palace at Erdine (in the European territories of the Empire), although in 1434 he was sent to Amaysa, in eastern Anatolia. 
He also helped quash the rebellions within the empire, especially those led by Abaza Hasan Pasha and George II Rákóczi.  The new Grand Vizier was Tarhoudja Ahmed Pasha, and he immediately started the economic and political reforms the empire desperately needed. 
One of the tasks on which Mehmed II set his heart was the restoration of the city, now popularly called Istanbul, as a worthy capital of a worldwide empire.  From the remains of Byzantium, he built a vibrant capital of a growing Turkish Empire which would be a major world power over the next four centuries. 
By the time of Mehmed’s death, most of the empire had fallen to the Allies, and six months later Constantinople was under military occupation.  Over the years, he also became an avid hunter, and he spent more time hunting than ruling a large but stagnant empire. 
The intent of his invasion was to capture Rome and "reunite the Roman Empire", and, at first, looked like he might be able to do it with the easy capture of Otranto in 1480 but Otranto was retaken by Papal forces in 1481 after the death of Mehmed.  Mehmed seized the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire in the Peloponnesus in 1460 and Trebizond, in Anatolia, in 1461.  As the heir to the Byzantine Empire, Mehmed was forced to modify slightly the system of government that he had inherited and to incorporate some foreign administrative and cultural institutions.  In 1453 Mehmed II (the Conqueror) fulfilled the warrior ideal by conquering Constantinople (soon to be known as Istanbul), putting an end to the Byzantine Empire, and subjugating the local Christian and Jewish populations.  At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire. 
Mehmed's claim rested with the concept that Constantinople was the seat of the Roman Empire, after the transfer of its capital to Constantinople in 330 AD and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.  He was not the only ruler to claim such a title, as there was the Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, whose emperor, Frederick III, traced his titular lineage from Charlemagne who obtained the title of Roman Emperor when he was crowned by Pope Leo III in 800 - although never recognized as such by the Byzantine Empire. 
Mehmed II's tomb is located at Fatih Mosque in Istanbul the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is also named after him.  It is notable that Mehmet II is not considered the first ruler of Constantinople of Turkic origin. 
Bayezid I, Ottoman sultan in 1389-1402 who founded the first centralized Ottoman state based on traditional Turkish and Muslim institutions and who stressed the need to extend Ottoman dominion in Anatolia.  Timur (Tamerlane), victorious over the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara, restored to the Turkmen their principalities that had been annexed by the Ottomans and divided the remaining Ottoman territory among three of Bayezid’s sons.  For instance, Ottoman Sultan Osman II wanted to execute his brother when he was going to the Battle of Khotyn to avoid possible disobedience behind.  Ottoman Sultan Murad IV sacrificed his innocent brother to suppress a riot as the army wanted to enthrone his brother.  When the eighth Ottoman sultan, Selim I, succeeded to the throne, he did not kill his brother Shahzade Korkut, but offered him a governorship position. 
Mehmed II is also recognized as the first Sultan to codify criminal and constitutional law long before Suleiman the Magnificent (also "the Lawmaker" or "Kanuni") and he thus established the classical image of the autocratic Ottoman sultan (padishah).  …cannon of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II (the Conqueror) in 1453, at the spot since called Cannon Gate (Top Kapısı).  Mehmed II amalgamated the old Byzantine administration into the Ottoman state.  Mehmed II was born in Edirne, the then-capital city of the Ottoman state, on March 30, 1432. 
It is narrated that the first capital punishment ordered within the dynasty was enforced by Osman Gazi, the founder of the Ottoman state, in 1298, for his uncle, Dündar Bey, as he was working on his own behalf and collaborated with the Byzantine feudal lords. 
It was upon this letter that Murad II led the Ottoman army in the Battle of Varna in 1444. 
Now, on May 1, 1481, as he prepared for further conflict against the Egyptian sultan, he was struck with severe abdominal pains and died two days later. 
By the time Sultan Mehmed II takes the throne in 1451, the Ottomans have expanded to control land in both Europe and Asia, thus surrounding the city of Constantinople.  Poster showing Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty, from Osman I (upper left corner) to Mehmed V (large portrait in the center).  Mehmed was able to unify the Ottoman lands under his rule (at the price of his brothers), and received assistance from Byzantine emperor Manuel II in doing so.  Mehmed was just twelve when his father abdicated, and ruled in this first phase for just two years until the situation in the Ottoman warzones demanded his father resume control.  His replacement was Mehmed V. The CUP began aiming to rule as a democratic, Western style government while at the same time ending European interference and intervention in Ottoman affairs.  The struggle continued, with Mehmed dissolving parliament, the nationalists sitting their government in Ankara, Mehmed signing the WW1 peace Treaty of Sevres which basically left the Ottomans as Turkey, and soon the nationalists abolished the sultanate. 
The Ottomans barely saw out the 19th century, and when the Turkish state revived, in the 1920s under Kemal Atatrk, it did so by turning its back on almost everything the old empire had stood for.  The Ottoman centuries: the rise and fall of the Turkish empire.  Although the British had supported them against Russia in the Crimean War, Britain now considered the Ottomans corrupt and their Empire beyond rescue. 
He ruled through the Balkan Wars, where the Ottomans lost most of their remaining European holdings and opposed entry into World War 1.  The war with Austria that had lasted several Sultans came to a peace agreement in Zsitvatörök in 1606, but it was a damaging result for Ottoman pride, allowing European traders deeper into the regime.  Sadly, there was little warmth between the Sultans and even their Turkish subjects they were regarded as Ottomans, not as Turks.  The text on the left and lower left of the poster reads: THE SULTANS OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY in Turkish, English, French, Spanish and Italian. 
It was used with particular frequency during the reign of Sultan Selim I Selim the Grim (1512-20)who, in a reign of eight short years, went through seven grand viziers (the Ottoman title for a chief minister) and ordered 30,000 executions.  The Ottoman rulers used the term Sultan for almost their entire dynasty. 
Ahmed lost the very able grand vizier he’d inherited from Suleyman II in battle, and the Ottomans lost a great deal of land as he was unable to strike out and do much for himself, being influenced by his court.  Although his reign saw a European alliance smash the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto, a new one was ready and active the next year.  For many years, the Topkapi itself paid mute testimony to the grand extent of Ottoman ruthlessness.  Having tried to stave off foreign intervention with the first Ottoman constitution in 1876, Abdülhamid decided the west was not the answer as they wanted his land, and he instead scrapped the parliament and the constitution and ruled for forty years as a strict autocrat. 
On August 10, 1920, Mehmed's representatives signed the Treaty of Sèvres, which recognized the mandates, removed Ottoman control over Anatolia and İzmir, severely reduced the extent of Turkey, and recognized Hejaz (later Saudi Arabia) as an independent state.  The Ottoman situation in the Balkans began to fray as vassal states united with Austria against Murad, and although he made gains in a war with Iran the finances of the state were decaying.  The son of Orchan, Murad I oversaw a massive expansion of the Ottoman territories, taking Adrianople, subduing the Byzantines, defeating a crusade and winning victories in Serbia and Bulgaria which forced submission, as well as expanding elsewhere.  Murad has been accused of being too susceptible to internal politics and allowing the Janissaries to transform into a force that threatened the Ottomans, not their enemies. 
Mehmed II helped Radu Ţepeş, the brother of Vlad, to take the revenge of the Ottoman military losses.  Lt. General Shemsi Pasha, commander of Ottoman government troops sent to suppress the rebellion in Macedonia, was assassinated by members of the Young Turks in Monastir on July 7, 1908. 
Leading a revolt against the Sultan and the occupying allies, as well as against Greece to determine the Turkish-Greek border, the nationalists won a much more favorable re-negotiation of the peace-terms, established a secular nation-state, reconciled themselves to the loss of empire and sent Mehmed into exile.  Through no fault of his own, Mehmed VI found himself enthroned as Sultan as his empire faced defeat in World War I and the almost certain dismemberment of the empire over which he ruled.  Unpopular taxes were imposed to finance the extravagant life-style of the Sultans while repayment on loans from European banks to pay for the Crimean War almost bankrupted the empire, causing default. 
With Naples under a unified state with a leader, the Sultan returned to Anatolia to ensure the Empire continued with its business.  In his lifetime, Mehmed was able to complete the Anatolian reunification, and in Europe, he saw his Empire span as far as Bosnia, Croatia, Albania, and unofficially unto the Papal States.  With the leadership of Uzun Hasan, this Turcoman kingdom gained power in the East but because of their strong relations with the Christian powers like Empire of Trebizond and the Republic of Venice and the alliance between Turcomans and Karamanoğlu Tribe, Mehmed saw them as a threat to his own power. 
Ottoman sultan who conquered Constantinople, renamed it Istanbul, and made it the capital of his empire.  At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire, transforming the Ottoman state into an empire. 
The war against Austria that started under Murad III continued, and Mehmed did have some success with victories, sieges, and conquests, but faced rebellions at home due to the declining Ottoman state and a new war with Iran.  On April 1st, 1453, Mehmed and his Ottoman army of over 100,000 soldiers arrived at the walls of Constantinople. 
Sultan Abdul Hamid II was deposed by the parliament on April 26, 1909, and he was succeeded by his brother, Mohammad V (Sultan Mehmet V), on April 27, 1909.  Conflict Phase (May 19, 1919-October 23, 1923): Mustafa Kemal Pasha began a nationalist rebellion against the government of Sultan Mehmet VI on May 19, 1919.  Sultan Mehmet V died on July 3, 1918, and he was succeeded by Mohammad VI (Sultan Mehmet VI) on July 4, 1918. 
In the letter, Mehmet II is acknowledging several Greek leaders that both control a population of people, as well as a military force. 
Abdul Hamid II presided over the empire at a time when nationalism swept through its Balkan territories.  In the late 13th century a series of small principalities emerged in Anatolia, sandwiched between the Byzantine and Mongol Empires.  He worked to keep the Great Powers of Europe mostly on his side to better hold the empire together, and they helped him win the Crimean War.  This, the later history of the empire amply demonstrated, was not ideal preparation for the pressures of ruling one of the greatest states the world has ever known. 
RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(23 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)
Royalties similar to or like Mehmed V
Mehmed VI Vahideddin ( Meḥmed-i sâdis or وحيد الدين Vahîdeddin VI. The 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 4 July 1918 until 1 November, 1922 when the Ottoman Empire was dissolved after World War I, and was replaced by the Republic of Turkey, on 29 October 1923. Wikipedia
The 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. The son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861. Wikipedia
The 33rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from 30 May to 31 August 1876. Born as Şehzade Mehmed Murad on 21 September 1840 in the Çırağ an Palace in Istanbul. Wikipedia
Mehmed IV (IV. The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. Wikipedia
The tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566. Under his administration, the Ottoman caliphate ruled over at least 25 million people. Wikipedia
The 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1774 to 1789. Born on 20 March 1725 in Constantinople, a younger son of Sultan Ahmed III and his consort Şermi Kadın. Wikipedia
Ottoman princess, the daughter of Sultan Abdulmejid I and his sixth consort Gülcemal Kadın and the full sister of Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire. Born on 1 November 1840 in the Beşiktaş Palace. Wikipedia
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. Area from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Wikipedia
State that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. Founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. Wikipedia
Ottoman prince, eldest son of Sultan Mehmed V and his senior consort Kamures Kadın. Born on 26 August 1873 in his father's villa in Ortaköy. Wikipedia
Ottoman princess, the daughter of Şehzade Mehmed Ziyaeddin, son of Mehmed V. Born on 3 August 1905 in the Dolmabahçe Palace. Wikipedia