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Medregal SS 480 - History

Medregal SS 480 - History

Medregal SS 480

Medregal
(SS 480: dp..1,570 (surt.), 2,414 (subm.); 1. 311'8"; b. 27'4", dr. 15'3"; a 20 k. (surS), 9 k. (subm.);cpl. 76; a. 1 6", 2 20mm., 10 21" tt.; cl. Tench)

Medregal (SS -480) was laid down by the Navy Yard Portsmouth, N.H., 21 August 1044; launched 15 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. A. H. Taylor; and commissioned 14 April 1945, Comdr. William ~I. Wright in command.

After shakedown in New England waters, Medregal departed New London, Conn., 18 June, and steamed to participate in final operations in the Pacific against the Japanese. Emergency repairs at Portsmouth delayed her arrival in the Pacific until after the cessation of hostilities, which occurred when she was finally Pacific bound. She returned to the Canal Zone, thence sailed to Key West for operations with Submarine Squadron 4.

From late 1945, to mid-1947 Medregal operated out of Key West, training Reserves, supporting activities of the Fleet Sonar School, and taking part in antisubmarine warfare exercises. Her cruises sent her along the east coast from Florida to Virginia, into the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, and to operating areas in the western Atlantic. Periodically she deployed to Guantanamo Bay and Havana, Cuba, as well as to Puerto Rico and islands of the West Indies. From March to November 1952 she underwent conversion to a snorkel-type submarine at Charleston, S.C.

On 17 June 1957 Medregal entered Charleston Naval Shipyard for conversion to a missile-guidance submarine. She completed overhaul 22 November, thence steamed to Norfolk, Va., for operations with Submarine Squadron 6. During the next 18 months she participated in intermittent missile-evaluation projects in the Caribbean off the Virgin Islands and in the Atlantic out of Puerto Rico.

Assigned to Submarine Squadron 3 on 10 July 1959, Medregal departed Norfolk 25 July and steamed to Pearl Harbor, arriving 24 August. She served in Hawaiian waters until sailing 9 January 1960 to the Far East, arriving Yokosuka the 20th. During the next 5 months she conducted training and evaluation exercises with units of the ever watchful, always ready, 7th Fleet, and ranged the western Pacific from Japan to the Philippines.

Returning to Pearl Harbor 1 July, Medregal resumed type and squadron operations between Hawaii and the west coast. Between September 1901 and March 1962 she made a second deployment with the 7th Fleet. In October she steamed to the west coast for ASW and Reserve training out of Puget Sound. She returned to Pearl Harbor in mid-December and for the next 2 years she maintained her pattern of operations between the Hawaiian Islands and the west coast.

Medregal departed Pearl Harbor for WestPac in mid April 1965. Steaming first to Australia, she visited Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne, and participated in the eonn~emoration of the Battle of the Coral Sea. Thence, in May she sailed to the Philippines for operations out of Subic Bay until returning to San Francisco the end of August.

Back in Pearl Harbor late in 1965, Medregal operated their until departure for Japan 2 July 1966. After reaching Yokosuka the 15th, she joined 7th Fleet carriers and destroyers for ASW Operations in the western Pacific, and readiness and alert maneuvers with ships of the Chinese Nationalist Navy. During the rest of the year she continued to support the might of American seapower, bolstering peacekeeping operations in the troubled Far East.

In January 1967, Medregal returned to her home port in Hawaii where she resumed her type training and squadron exercises with SubRon 1. She continued duty out of Pearl Harbor until 1 May when she was assigned to

SubRon 3 out of San Diego, Calif'. On 1 May 1967, Medregal was reclassified as AG S S-480. Into 1969, Medregal serves at San Diego, providing Reserve training and performing auxiliary duties.


Medregal SS 480 - History

From: DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN NAVAL FIGHTING SHIPS , Vol. IV, pp. 310-11

A streamlined, fast-swimming, bluish-colored fish of the Jack family which abounds in waters of the West Indies and in the Atlantic as far north as the Carolinas.

(SS-480: dp. 1,570 (surf.), 2,414 (subm.) l. 311' 8" b. 27' 4" dr. 15' 3" s. 20 k. (surf.), 9 k. (subm.) cpl. 76 a. 1 6", 2 20mm., 10 21" tt. cl. Tench )

Medregal (SS-480) was laid down by the Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N.H., 21 August 1944 launched 15 December 1944, sponsored by Mrs. A. H. Taylor and commissioned 14 April 1945, Comdr. William M. Wright in command.

After shakedown in New England waters, Medregal departed New London, Conn., 16 June, and steamed to participate in final operations in the Pacific against the Japanese. Emergency repairs at Portsmouth delayed her arrival in the Pacific until after the cessation of hostilities, which occurred when she was finally Pacific-bound. She returned to the Canal Zone, thence sailed to Key West for operations with Submarine Squadron 4.

From late 1945 to mid-1957 Medregal operated out of Key West, training Reserves, supporting activities of the Fleet Sonar School, and taking part in antisubmarine warfare exercises. Her cruises sent her along the east coast from Florida to Virginia , into the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, and to operating areas in the western Atlantic. Periodically she deployed to Guantanamo Bay and Havana, Cuba, as well us to Puerto Rico and islands off the West Indies. From March to November 1952 she underwent conversion to a snorkel-type submarine at Charleston, S.C.

On 17 June 1957 Medregal entered Charleston Naval Shipyard for conversion to a missile-guidance submarine. She completed overhaul 22 November, thence steamed to Norfolk, Va., for operations with Submarine Squadron 6. During the next 18 months she p articipated in intermittent missile-evaluation projects in the Caribbean off the Virgin Islands and in the Atlantic out off Puerto Rico.

Assigned to Submarine Squadron 3 on 10 July 1959 Medregal departed Norfolk 25 July and steamed to Pearl Harbor, arriving 24 August. She served in Hawaiian waters until sailing 9 January 1960 to the Far East, arriving Yokosuka the 26th. During the n ext 5 months she conducted training and evaluation exercises with units of the ever watchful, always ready, 7th Fleet, and ranged the western Pacific from Japan to the Philippines.

Returning to Pearl Harbor 1 July, Medregal resumed type and squadron operations between Hawaii and the west coast. Between September 1961 and March 1962 she made a second deployment with the 7th Fleet. In October she steamed to the west coast for A SW and Reserve training out of Puget Sound. She returned to Pearl Harbor in mid-December and for the next 2 years she maintained her pattern of operations between the Hawaiian Islands and the west coast.

Medregal departed Pearl Harbor for WestPac in mid-April 1965. Steaming first to Australia, she visited Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne, and participated in the commemoration of the Battle of the Coral Sea. Thence, in May she sailed to the Philippin es for operations out of Subic Bay until returning to San Francisco the end of August.

Back in Pearl Harbor late in 1965, Medregal operated their until departure for Japan 2 July 1966. After reaching Yokosuka the 15th, she joined 7th Fleet carriers and destroyers for ASW operations in the western Pacific, and readiness and alert mane uvers with ships of the Chinese Nationalist Navy. During the rest of the year she continued to support the might of American seapower, bolstering peacekeeping operations in the troubled Far East.

In January 1967, Medregal returned to her home port in Hawaii where she resumed her type training and squadron exercises with SubRon 1. She continued duty out of Pearl Harbor until 1 May when she was assigned to

SubRon 3 out of San Diego, Calif. On 1 May 1967, Medregal was reclassified as AGSS-480. Into 1969, Medregal serves at San Diego, providing Reserve training and performing auxiliary duties.


GSEB Class 10 Social Science Textbooks

A textbook is one of the most important and vital tools in a student’s academic life. It provides an organised course structure. Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board students should be thorough with their prescribed Social Science textbook for Class 10. It will help them to understand the concepts thoroughly. Along with the textbooks, students should also refer to other study materials to score better marks in the exam. These textbooks are approved and sanctioned by the GSEB Board and are prepared according to the GSEB syllabus. Even teachers also refer to these textbooks while creating the board question paper. Learning for the board exams by mastering all the concepts of the GSEB Class 10 Social Science textbooks and revising them again is the best method to score high marks.

Social Science is a branch of science that deals with human behaviour in its social and cultural aspects. In the table below, we have mentioned chapter wise PDF of GSEB Class 10 textbook of Social Science textbook, both in English and Gujarati Medium. Students are advised to solve the practice questions provided at the end of each chapter as well as the sample papers of Class 10 Social Science.


Description

We are happy to offer a classic style 5 panel custom US Navy submarine SS 480 USS Medregal embroidered hat.

For an additional (and optional) charge of $7.00, our hats can be personalized with up to 2 lines of text of 14 characters each (including spaces), such as with a veteran’s last name and rate and rank on the first line, and years of service on the second line.

Our SS 480 USS Medregal embroidered hat comes in two styles for your choosing. A traditional “high profile” flat bill snap back style (with an authentic green under visor on the bottom of the flat bill), or a modern “medium profile” curved bill velcro back “baseball cap” style. Both styles are “one size fits all”. Our hats are made of durable 100% cotton for breathability and comfort.

Given high embroidery demands on these “made to order” hats, please allow 4 weeks for shipment.

If you have any questions about our hat offerings, please contact us at 904-425-1204 or e-mail us at [email protected] , and we will be happy to speak to you!


Medregal SS 480 - History

USS GRAYBACK (SSG/LPSS/SS-574) WEBPAGE

A Brief History of the
USS Grayback

Construction of the USS Grayback (SS-574) was authorized in 1953. The keel was laid 1 July 1954 Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California and launched 2 July 1954 (Sponsored by Mrs. John J. Moore, widow of the last CO of the first Grayback) and commissioned 7 March 1958. The Grayback was initially designated as attack diesel submarine but conversion to guided missile submarine (SSG-574) capable of firing the Regulus II sea to surface missiles began in 1958. The Grayback successfully launched it's first Regulus missile in September 1958. On 9 February 1959 Grayback departed Mare Island, CA for her permanent home base and arrived in Pearl Harbor, HI on 7 March 1959. The Regulus missile program ended in 1964 and the USS Grayback was withdrawn from active service. A second conversion was authorized in 1967 and the conversion began at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard November 1967. The conversion was originally estimated at $15.2 million but actually was $30 million. She was re-classified from a SSG to LPSS 30 August 1968 (never officially designated APSS). During conversion her sail was extended 10 feet, auxiliary tanks #3 and #4 were added to the forward position of the engine room, the missile chambers were converted to carry 67 embarked troops and SEAL swimmer delivery vehicles (SDV), and a diver's decompression chamber was constructed in the starboard hanger. By adding the auxiliary tanks to the engine room her length was extended 12 feet to an overall length of 334 feet. The Grayback was decommissioned for the second time on 15 January 1984 at Subic Bay Naval Station in the Republic of the Philippines. After decommissioning, the USS Grayback was given the honor to make it's last and final dive in the South China Sea on 13 April 1986 where the USS Grayback remains today on eternal patrol.

Reunion Update March 2021

Plans have been finalized for the reunion to be held 24-29 August 2021 at the Tuscany Suites & Casino, Las Vegas NV. We used a professional reunion organizer this time, "A Complete Reunion", to do all the legwork. Here is the link to the details of the reunion. Click the Brochure link at the bottom of the page to get all the registration information. Registration deadline is July 24,

For those planning on attending the 2021 Las Vegas Reunion in August there is going to be a "Ships Store". The shirts will be available for preorder, custom made for us at a reduced price from retail. If you are interested, for those attending the reunion, you will be able to pay and pickup at the Reunion. The shirts will only have USS Grayback SS-574 on them.

The embroidery on the front can be adapted to suit your wants. Silver or Gold Dolphins and your specific type boat (eg SSG-574, LPSS-574 or SS-574) There would be no difference in price Prices are SM - XL $25 2XXL - $27 3XXL - $29 Omar sized - contact for pricing Pre-Order deadline is May 20th

If you are attending you can preorder by contacting Jeff Vahala via text 360-620-1154, on Facebook Messenger, or via email @ [email protected] If for some reason your plans change and you can not attend the reunion there will be an extra shipping fee of $5.00 for each shirt in addition to the price.

We hope you can attend and look forward to another fabulous time with old friends and the opportunity to reminisce about what, for most of us, was the high point of our naval careers. We are also looking for suggestions for a guest speaker. So if you or someone you know who can attend, would be willing to stand-in, please reply to our email with any thoughts. Or if there is really something of interest to all about Las Vegas or it's history, we can certainly investigate the local resources to see if something can be arranged.


Pacific Fleet service

Assigned to Submarine Squadron 3 on 10 July 1959 Medregal departed Norfolk 25 July and steamed to Pearl Harbor, arriving 24 August. She served in Hawaiian waters until sailing 9 January 1960 to the Far East, arriving at U.S. Fleet Activities Yokosuka on 26 January. During the next five months she conducted training and evaluation exercises with units of the U.S. Seventh Fleet, and ranged the western Pacific from Japan to the Philippines.

Returning to Pearl Harbor 1 July, Medregal resumed type and squadron operations between Hawaii and the West Coast. Between September 1961 and March 1962 she made a second deployment with the U.S. Seventh Fleet. In October she steamed to the West Coast for ASW and Reserve training out of Puget Sound. She returned to Pearl Harbor in mid-December and for the next two years she maintained her pattern of operations between the Hawaiian Islands and the West Coast.

Medregal departed Pearl Harbor for WestPac in mid-April 1965. Steaming first to Australia, she visited Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne, and participated in the commemoration of the Battle of the Coral Sea. Thence, in May she sailed to the Philippines for operations out of Subic Bay. On 13 July 1965 she was in a collision with a freighter while submerged in the South China Sea. Returned to Subic Bay for repairs. Extensive damage was done to the sail, all periscopes and snorkel system were completely inoperative. After patched up in Subic Bay, returned to Pearl Harbor for a short while then to Mare Island, Vellejo, Calif. for major repairs. Arrived back in Pearl Harbor late December 1965.

Back in Pearl Harbor late in 1965, Medregal operated their until departure for Japan 2 July 1966. After reaching Yokosuka on 15 July, she joined Seventh Fleet aircraft carriers and destroyers for ASW operations in the western Pacific, and readiness and alert maneuvers with ships of the Republic of China Navy (based in Taiwan). During the rest of the year she continued to support peacekeeping operations in the troubled Far East.

In January 1967, Medregal returned to her home port in Hawaii where she resumed her type training and squadron exercises with SubRon 1. She continued duty out of Pearl Harbor until 1 May when she was assigned to SubRon 3 out of San Diego, California. On 1 May 1967, Medregal was reclassified with hull classification symbol AGSS-480.

On 6 February 1969 Medregal sank the USS Redfish  (SS-395) as a target off the coast of California. Redfish was a combat veteran of World War II.

On 24 June 1969 Medregal departed San Diego for her final WestPac cruise. Stops included Hawaii, Guam, Viet Nam(twice), Subic Bay/Manila (Philippines), Chinhae (South Korea), Yokosuka/Kobe (Japan), Kaohsiung (Taiwan) and Hong Kong. Medregal arrived back in San Diego on 24 December 1969. She continued home port operations there until August 1970.

Medregal was decommissioned and struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 August 1970 and sold for scrapping 13 June 1972.


1969 Ford Mustang Boss 429

Muscle car fans thought the 1969 Ford Mustang Boss 429 would be the Mustang to finally rival the best of the Corvettes. They were disappointed when it wasn't. But Ford never intended the Boss 429 as a street dominator, or as any kind of drag-racing threat. This gap between expectation and intent dimmed the glow of an extraordinary car.

The Boss 429 was born of Ford's need to qualify 500 examples of its new racing engine for NASCAR. But instead of putting production units in the midsize Torinos it ran in stock-car racing, Ford offered the engines in its restyled '69 Mustang fastback. It was a serious mill: four-bolt mains, a forged steel crankshaft, and big-port, staggered-valve aluminum heads with crescent-shaped combustion chambers.

A 735-cfm Holley four-barrel with ram-air, an aluminum high-riser, and header-type exhaust manifolds completed the engine, which retailed for $1,200. Mandatory options included a four-speed ($254) and a 3.91:1 Traction-Lok ($64). An oil cooler, trunk-mounted battery, beefed suspension with front and rear stabilizer bars, Polyglas F60X15s, quicker power steering, and power front discs rounded out the functional hardware. Boss 429s used Mustang's plushest interior decor and an 8000-rpm tach. They were refreshingly clean outside, with simple decals, hood scoop, front spoiler, and Magnum 500 wheels. Air conditioning and automatic transmission were forbidden.

This was the costliest non-Shelby Mustang, and part of the expense was a reworked front suspension to fit the big semi-hemi 429. The surprising upside was a wider front track and improved geometry that, with the husky tires, gave the Boss 429 fine handling. But who wanted handling?

The superspeedway-bound 429 thrived on high revs -- bad news for standing-start acceleration. Moreover, the initial batch had incorrect valve springs and stopped winding at 4500 rpm, not the correct 6000. Even with such hop-ups as Hurst linkage, traction bars, high-performance cam, and rejetted carb, quarter-mile performance fell short of other big-block specialty cars.

Ford built 1,356 Boss 429 Mustangs and two Cougars for '69 and '70 before ending its factory racing program and retiring a car whose promise and purpose never really meshed.

For more cool information on muscle cars, go to:

  • Some of the best all-around performance machines of the day were Ford muscle cars. See profiles, photos, and specifications of more Ford muscle cars.
  • Muscle cars come in many shapes and sizes. Here are features on more than 100 muscle cars, including photos and specifications for each model.
  • Muscle cars created their own culture. To learn about it, read How Muscle Cars Work.
  • Are you thinking of buying a 2007 muscle car, or any other car? See Consumer Guide Automotive's New-Car Reviews, Prices, and Information.

Check out these profiles of muscle cars, which include photos and specifications of each model:


Pacific Fleet service

Assigned to Submarine Squadron 3 on 10 July 1959 Medregal departed Norfolk 25 July and steamed to Pearl Harbor, arriving 24 August. She served in Hawaiian waters until sailing 9 January 1960 to the Far East, arriving at U.S. Fleet Activities Yokosuka on 26 January. During the next five months she conducted training and evaluation exercises with units of the U.S. Seventh Fleet, and ranged the western Pacific from Japan to the Philippines.

Returning to Pearl Harbor 1 July, Medregal resumed type and squadron operations between Hawaii and the West Coast. Between September 1961 and March 1962 she made a second deployment with the U.S. Seventh Fleet. In May 1962, Medregal and USS Carbonero, SS-337 participated in Operation Dominic I, Shot Frigate Bird near Christmas Island (now Kiribati). It was the first and only test of a fully operational Polaris missile with a 600 kt thermonuclear warhead, fired from USS Ethan Allan, SSBN-608. In October she steamed to the West Coast for ASW (SLAMEX) and Reserve training out of Puget Sound. She returned to Pearl Harbor in mid-December and for the next two years she maintained her pattern of operations between the Hawaiian Islands and the West Coast.

Medregal departed Pearl Harbor for WestPac in mid-April 1965. Steaming first to Australia, she visited Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne, and participated in the commemoration of the Battle of the Coral Sea. Thence, in May she sailed to the Philippines for operations out of Subic Bay. On 13 July 1965 she was in a collision with a freighter while submerged in the South China Sea. Returned to Subic Bay for repairs. Extensive damage was done to the sail, all periscopes and snorkel system were completely inoperative. After patched up in Subic Bay, returned to Pearl Harbor for a short while then to Mare Island, Vellejo, Calif. for major repairs. Arrived back in Pearl Harbor late December 1965.

Back in Pearl Harbor late in 1965, Medregal operated their until departure for Japan 2 July 1966. After reaching Yokosuka on 15 July, she joined Seventh Fleet aircraft carriers and destroyers for ASW operations in the western Pacific, and readiness and alert maneuvers with ships of the Republic of China Navy (based in Taiwan). During the rest of the year she continued to support peacekeeping operations in the troubled Far East.

In January 1967, Medregal returned to her home port in Hawaii where she resumed her type training and squadron exercises with SubRon 1. She continued duty out of Pearl Harbor until 1 May when she was assigned to SubRon 3 out of San Diego, California. On 1 May 1967, Medregal was reclassified with hull classification symbol AGSS-480.

On 6 February 1969 Medregal sank the USS Redfish  (SS-395) as a target off the coast of California. Redfish was a combat veteran of World War II.

On 24 June 1969 Medregal departed San Diego for her final WestPac cruise. Stops included Hawaii, Guam, Viet Nam(twice), Subic Bay/Manila (Philippines), Chinhae (South Korea), Yokosuka/Kobe (Japan), Kaohsiung (Taiwan) and Hong Kong. Medregal arrived back in San Diego on 24 December 1969. She continued home port operations there until August 1970.

Medregal was decommissioned and struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 August 1970 and sold for scrapping 13 June 1972.


"It is a stain on this nation's honor that the Department of Veterans Affairs has become a deadlier and more difficult adversary to the American veteran than any they have ever faced on a battlefield." --VNVets

"The concept that Agent Orange, and its effects, stopped dead in its tracks at the shoreline is simply too illogical, and too ludicrous to accept. What does that say about the Bush Administration and his Department of Veterans Affairs?" --VNVets


White Supremacists Have Weaponized an Imaginary Viking Past. It's Time to Reclaim the Real History

A fter New Zealand passed new gun laws this week, most automatic and semi-automatic weapons have become outlawed there as of Friday &mdash a swift response to the March 15 shootings in Christchurch that left 50 Muslim men, women and children dead at the hands of an alleged white supremacist terrorist. But guns weren&rsquot the only weapon used by the shooter.

The shootings followed the release of materials some have called a manifesto but that has more accurately been called a &ldquomedia plan.&rdquo In it are multiple medieval references, several involving medieval Vikings, which these days function as a signal to white supremacists. Along with much else from the European medieval world, the Viking past is part of the far right&rsquos standard visual and textual imaginary. That vision of a Viking world depends on contemporary digital and filmic popular culture &mdash such as the TV show Vikings and Viking-adjacent video games &mdash as well as on academic and historical sources.

But far-right Viking medievalism is not about historical accuracy. Rather, it&rsquos used to create narratives. So, to resist the medieval narratives that activate violent hate, we must create counternarratives &mdash and to do that, we must understand the real Viking past and how it has been weaponized.

The term &ldquoViking&rdquo possibly comes from the Old Norse word víkingr (sea warrior). As Stefan Brink and Neil Price&rsquos The Viking World describes, historically, it referred to seafaring groups who traversed the seas, oceans and rivers to raid, trade and colonize around the 10th and 11th centuries. They established settler colonies across the Mediterranean, Caspian, Black, Arctic and North Atlantic seas and waterways, maintaining a presence in regions ranging from present-day Russia and Europe to the Americas. Crucially, they were not homogeneous seafarers as is often imagined they were multicultural and multiracial. But until recently, scholarly discussions of the Vikings in relation to race and a Global Middle Ages had been sidelined.

So where does the white supremacist vision of Viking genealogy come from?

Despite the fact that real Viking history was multicultural, academic medieval studies have historically been to blame for the upholding of that imaginary past.

In the 19th century, Romantic German nationalism metastasized into the Völkish movement, which was interested in historical narratives that bolstered a white German nation state. The movement rewrote history, drawing on folklore such as that of Brothers Grimm, medieval epics and a dedication to racial white supremacy. Late 19th and early 20th-century scholars simultaneously drew from and reinforced this racialized imagination of the medieval past. Crucially, Vilhelm Grønbach&rsquos multi-volume work Vor Folkeæt i Oldtiden (The Cultures of the Teutons) imagined an ancient Germanic genealogy that ran from Tacitus through the Middle Ages.

German scholarly work during the eve of the Third Reich then added to this idea, with authors like Gustav Neckel and Bernhard Kummer blaming socialism, Jews and class revolutions for the &ldquodecline&rdquo of a Germanic race they saw descending from this Viking past. Another German scholar, Otto Höfler, who based his work on Grønbach, wrote of the Männerbunde, which the scholar Stefanie von Schnurbein has described as &ldquoall-male warrior associations in so-called primitive societies.&rdquo His take on Männerbund would become used as an explanation of the past and current Germanic race, and fueled the idea behind Nazi groups such as the SS and SA.

After World War II, despite the defeat of the Axis powers, these ideas didn&rsquot go away. Rather, they saw a resurgence in specific circles, including various far-right neo-pagan groups, like the Scandinavian Nordic Resistance Movement, known for their neo-Nazi violence. Grønbach&rsquos multivolume work, translated and available online, and the works of his contemporaries have also influenced current far-right extremists in Europe and North America.

This neo-pagan resurgence intersects with many facets of extremism today, from eco-fascism &mdash another term the Christchurch terrorist invoked &mdash to groups like the Odinists, who practice a form of white toxic masculinity based on the belief that the &ldquobarbaric&rdquo warriors of medieval Northern Europe functioned as a violent warrior comitatus. Odinists follow a neo-pagan medieval Scandinavian religion that is unacknowledged by the official Icelandic pagan religion, Ásatrú. The man who is accused of attacking two teenage girls (one in a hijab) and murdering Rick Best and Taliesin Myrddin Namkai-Meche in Portland, Ore., in 2017 has linked himself to the idea of “Vinland,” the concept of a Viking North America onto which an imaginary Odinist past has been superimposed.

Nor is this use of Old Norse and Viking &ldquohistory&rdquo limited to specific alt-right subgroups. In fact, it is a generalized social fixture in these circles. For example, when researcher Patrik Hermansson went undercover among the denizens of this world, he attended &ldquogatherings where extremists drank mead from a traditional Viking horn and prayed to the Norse god Odin.&rdquo The Viking past contributes to a medieval toolkit of language, allusion and symbolism used to transmit white supremacist messages.

Communities of color have in the past fought white supremacist medieval narratives at the grassroots by spreading their own counternarratives, from W.E.B. Du Bois creating an African-American vision of the medieval past in Dark Princess to the Asian Americans who pushed back against racist medievalism during the period of Chinese Exclusion. Scholars and historians &mdash not just medievalists &mdash must also interrogate their disciplines from the inside, setting the record straight about medieval race and the Global Middle Ages.

So far, however, the most widespread, concerted and effective way to fight back against this historical white supremacist Viking genealogy has come not from academics or journalists.

Rather, it has come from Taika Waititi, the indigenous Maori director and writer. His movie Thor: Ragnarok &mdash in which Thor&rsquos hammer, a medieval item regularly brandished by extremists, is destroyed &mdash was a multiracial and postcolonial counternarrative to the white Viking narrative circulating through the alt-right digital ecosystem. After decades of building up the violent Viking vision, more such stories will be needed to disrupt this medieval machine.

Historians’ perspectives on how the past informs the present

Dorothy Kim is an Assistant Professor of Medieval Literature at Brandeis University. She was a Fulbright Fellow in Iceland.


Watch the video: the best alternative to carry fishing hooks (December 2021).