The name Mogollon comes from the Mogollon Mountains,  which were named after Don Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón, Spanish Governor of New Spain (including what is now New Mexico) from 1712 to 1715. The name was chosen and defined in 1936 by archaeologist Emil W. Haury. 
The distinct facets of Mogollon culture were recorded by Emil Haury, based on his excavations in 1931, 1933, and 1934 at the Harris Village in Mimbres, New Mexico, and the Mogollon Village on the upper San Francisco River in New Mexico  Haury recognized differences between architecture and artifacts from these sites as compared with sites in the Hohokam archaeological culture area and the Ancestral Pueblo archaeological culture area. Key differences included brown-paste, coil-and-scrape pottery, deeply excavated semi-subterranean pit-houses and different ceremonial architecture. Eight decades of subsequent research have confirmed Haury's initial findings.  Today, the distinctiveness of the Mogollon pottery manufacture, architectural construction, ground-stone tool design, habits and customs of residence location, and mortuary treatment is generally recognized.  
The earliest Mogollon pithouses were deep and either circular or oval-shaped. Over time, Mogollon people built rectangular houses with rounded corners and not as deep. Their villages also had kivas, or round, semi-subterranean ceremonial structures. 
Mogollon origins remain a matter of speculation. One model holds that the Mogollon emerged from a preceding Desert Archaic tradition that links Mogollon ancestry with the first (late Pleistocene) prehistoric human occupations of the area (around 9000 BC). In this model, cultural distinctions emerged in the larger region when populations grew great enough to establish villages and even larger communities. An alternative possibility holds that the Mogollon were descendants of early farmers who migrated from farming regions in central Mexico around 3500 BC, and who displaced descendants of the antecedent Desert Archaic peoples. A third view is that at the time of the shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture the Cochise culture  (the early pithouse, late Desert Archaic, antecedents of the Mogollon) had been immigrants into the area about 5000 BC, and were not linked to the earlier inhabitants, but were receptive to cultural dissemination from the farmers of Central Mexico. [ citation needed ]
The Mogollon were, initially, foragers who augmented their subsistence efforts by farming. Through the first millennium CE, however, dependence on farming probably increased. Water control features are common among Mimbres branch sites from the 10th through 12th centuries CE.
The nature and density of Mogollon residential villages changed through time. The earliest Mogollon villages are small hamlets composed of several pithouses (houses excavated into the ground surface, with stick and thatch roofs supported by a network of posts and beams, and faced on the exterior with earth). Village sizes increased over time and by the 11th century surface pueblos (ground level dwellings made with rock and earth walls, and with roofs supported by post and beam networks) became common. Cliff-dwellings became common during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Research on Mogollon culture has led to the recognition of regional variants, of which the most widely recognized in popular media is the Mimbres culture (Mimbres Mogollon branch). Others include the Jornada, Forestdale, Reserve, Point of Pines (or "Black River"), San Simon, and Upper Gila branches. Although the Mimbres culture is the most well-known subset of the Mogollon archaeological culture-area, the entire Mogollon occupation spans a greater interval of time (roughly one millennium) and a vastly larger area than is encompassed by the Mimbres culture.
Developmental periods Edit
Mogollon culture is often divided into five periods proposed by Joe Ben Wheat in 1955:
- Mogollon 1 (200 – c. 400 CE): Pine Lawn, Georgetown, Penasco, Circle Prairie, and Hilltop phases
- Mogollon 2 (c. 400–650 CE): San Lorenzo, Dos Cabezas, Circle Prairie, and Cottonwood phases
- Mogollon 3 (650–850 CE): San Francisco, Pinaleno, Galiuro, Forestdale, and San Marcial phases
- Mogollon 4 (850–1000 CE): Three Circle, Cerros, Corduroy, Mesilla, and Capitan phases
- Mogollon 5 (1000–1450 CE), including the Classic Mimbres phrase (1050–1200 CE): Mangus, Mimbres, Encinas, Reserve, Tularosa, Dona Anna, Three Rivers, El Paso, and San Anders phases. 
An alternate way of viewing Mogollon culture is through three periods of housing types:
- Early Pithouse (200–550 CE)
- Late Pithouse (550–1000 CE)
- Mogollon Pueblo (1000–1450 CE). 
Archaeological sites attributed to the Mogollon culture are found in the Gila Wilderness, Mimbres River Valley, along the Upper Gila river, Paquime and Hueco Tanks, an area of low mountains between the Franklin Mountains to the west and the Hueco Mountains to the east. Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in southwestern New Mexico was established as a national monument on 16 November 1907. It contains several archaeological sites attributed to the Mimbres branch. At the headwaters of the Gila, Mimbres populations adjoined another more northern branch of the Mogollon culture. The TJ Ruin, for example, is a Classic Mimbres phase pueblo, however the cliff dwellings are Tularosa phase. The Hueco Tanks State Historic Site is approximately 32 mi (51 km) northeast of El Paso, Texas. 
Mimbres may, depending on its context, refer to a tradition within a subregion of the Mogollon culture area (the Mimbres branch or the Mimbres Mogollon) or to an interval of time, the "Classic Mimbres phase" (also known as the "Mimbres culture" 1000–1130 CE, roughly) within the Mimbres branch.
The Mimbres branch is a subset of the larger Mogollon culture area, centered in the Mimbres Valley and encompassing the upper Gila River and parts of the upper San Francisco River in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona as well as the Rio Grande Valley and its western tributaries in southwest New Mexico. Differentiation between the Mimbres branch and other areas of the Mogollon culture area is most apparent during the Three Circle (825–1000 CE roughly) and Classic Mimbres (1000–1150) phases, when architectural construction and black and white painted pottery assume locally distinctive forms and styles.  Classic Mimbres phase pottery is particularly famous pottery, and Classic Mimbres pottery designs (mainly drawn from the Swarts Ruin excavations of 1924–1927) were imitated on Santa Fe Railroad "Mimbreños" china dinnerware from 1936 to 1970.
Three Circle phase (825/850–1000) pithouse villages within the Mimbres branch are distinctive. Houses are "quadrilateral", usually with sharply-angled corners plastered floors and walls and average about 17 m 2 (180 sq ft) in floor surface area. Local pottery styles include early forms of Mimbres black and white ("boldface"), red-on-cream, and textured plainware. Large ceremonial structures (often called "kivas") are dug deeply into the ground and often include distinctive ceremonial features such as foot drums and log grooves.
Classic Mimbres phase (AD 1000–1130) pueblos can be quite large, with some composed of clusters of communities, each containing up to 150 rooms and all grouped around an open plaza. Ceremonial structures were different from the previous pithouse periods. Most common were ceremonial rooms within roomblocks. Smaller square or rectangular semi-subterranean kivas with roof openings are also found. (The word "kiva", a Hopi term with specific meaning, has generally been applied to Northern Pueblo populations. It may be a poor term in discussing the Mogollon in their broadest contexts.  ) The largest Classic Mimbres sites are located near wide areas of well-watered floodplain suitable for maize agriculture, although smaller villages exist in upland areas.
Mimbres pottery Edit
Ceramics, especially bowls, produced in the Mimbres region are distinct in style and painted with geometric designs and representational images of animals, people, and cultural icons in black paint on a white background. Some of these images suggest familiarity and relationships with cultures in northern and central Mexico. The elaborate decoration suggests the Mimbres Mogollons enjoyed a rich ceremonial life. Early Mimbres black-on-white pottery, called Mimbres Style I (formerly "Boldface Black-on-White"), is primarily characterized by bold geometric designs, although some early examples feature human and animal figures.
Both geometric and figurative designs grew increasingly sophisticated and diverse over time. Classic Mimbres Black-on-White pottery (Style III) is characterized by elaborate geometric designs, refined brushwork, including very fine linework, and may include figures of one or more animals, humans, or other images bounded either by simple rim bands or by geometric decoration. Bird figures are common on Mimbres pots, including images such as turkeys feeding on insects and a man trapping birds in a garden. Fish figures are also depicted on Mimbres pottery, and some are marine species typically found in the Gulf of California. 
Mimbres bowls are often found associated with burials, typically with a hole punched out of the center, known as kill holes. Bowls with kill holes have been commonly found covering the face of the interred person. However, archaeological evidence suggests that most potteries were not buried with the dead.  Wear marks on the insides of bowls show they were actually used, not just produced as burial items. The distinctive style, which includes "diamond-shaped eyes and receding chins for human figures", created demand on the black market beginning in the 1960s, and vandalism and looting of gravesite took pace and has continued into the present day. 
Mimbres pottery is so distinctive that until fairly recently, the end of its production around 1130 to 1150 was equated with the "disappearance" of the people who made it. More recent research indicates that substantial depopulation did occur in the Mimbres Valley, but some remnant populations persisted there.  Both there and in surrounding areas, people changed their pottery styles to more closely resemble those of neighboring culture areas, and dispersed into other residential sites with different types of architecture.
The area originally settled by the Mogollon culture was eventually filled by the unrelated Apache people, who moved in from the north. However, contemporary Pueblo people in the southwest claim descent from the Mogollon and other related cultures.   Archaeologists believe that the Western Pueblo villages of the Hopi and Zuni people are potentially related to the Mogollon.  Ceramics traditions and oral history link the Acoma, Hopi, and Zuni, to the Mogollon.  In the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, the Rarámuri tribe are believed to be descendants of the Mogollon culture as well. 
The clay used in Tell el-Yehudiyeh Ware is normally grey or light-brown in colour, with numerous gritty inclusions.
Tell el-Yehudiyeh Ware is characterised by its distinctive mode of decoration, applied after slipping and burnishing, and created by repeatedly "pricking" the surface of the vessel with a small sharp object to create a large variety of geometric designs ('puncturing' according to some writers - not a completely accurate description of the process, as it appears to have been the potters' intention not to 'puncture' or 'pierce' the vessel wall, but merely to make a series of small impressions or dents). These designs appear in the form of lines, stripes, triangles, squares and - very occasionally - circles. Vessels of Tell el-Yehudiyeh Ware frequently have a dark surface (the burnished slip varying from brownish black, to grey, to yellowish), the multiple holes often being filled with chalk or lime, the contrasting white material making the surface design even more dramatic.
Tell el-Yehudiyeh Ware is primarily seen in the form of juglets, but also includes a large variety of zoomorphic (animal-shaped) vessels and even some shaped like fruit.
Well represented in the Nile Valley up into Nubia (though primarily in the eastern Nile Delta of Egypt), the southern portion of Canaan, the north coast of Canaan, the Phoenician and Syrian coasts and the island of Cyprus (primarily the eastern regions). Not presently found in inland Syria.
The artists of Kha'po Owingeh (Tewa: [xɑ̀ʔp’òː ʔówîŋgè]), also called Santa Clara Pueblo, and of P'ohwhóge Owingeh (Tewa: [p’òhxʷógè ʔówîŋgè]), also known as San Ildefonso Pueblo, have been making traditional blackware (reduction-fired earthenware) for many years using a coarse-grained clay body decorated with deeply incised or excised designs.    During the firing process in an earthen pit, the fire is smothered with powdered dung which reduces the oxygen without diminishing the heat this process blackens the clay.  Another method of blackening the clay is by "smudging". The pots are surrounded with sheets of metal to reduce the amount of oxygen, and then smothered with damp manure. The smoke impregnates the clay with carbon to produce the blackened finish. 
Black-on-black ware is produced with a smooth surface, with the designs applied through selective burnishing or the application of refractory slip. The clay body used in this type of pottery has a very fine grain structure. Both types are typically made using traditional methods of hand-coiling local clay and firing it in a pit.   Black-on-black ware pottery can be found in many museums and private collections.    The rapid shift in the early 20th century from traditional blackware made for centuries to the black-on-black style that broke with tradition was triggered by the innovations of María Martinez of P'ohwhóge Owingeh. 
In 1910, María Poveka Martinez and her husband Julián of P'ohwhóge Owingeh are credited with originating a non-incised, smooth-surfaced polished-black on matte-black technique. Their technique involves making blackware using a fine-grained clay body fired in a cow-dung fire. By 1918 they had perfected the technique producing black-on-black surface ornamentation, created by selectively burnishing and polishing specific areas of the pot.  The polishing gives the clay a silver-black lustrous light-reflecting quality. At times the matte areas are painted with an iron-bearing slip.   By 1925, Martinez' pots were in demand, and selling for prices that benefited the pueblo by enabling new houses to be built and farming equipment to be purchased. 
Between 1956 and 1970 Martinez collaborated with her son, Popovi Da (1921–1971).   Popovi Da was known for his experimentation, precision of design and for reviving and transforming tradtional techniques. He perfected gunmetal-black finishes by knowing exactly when to "cut the oxidation" during the firing process.  His son, Tony Da (1940–2008) produced work that used sgraffito etching, and initiated a technique to selective black-on-black and sienna coloration on the same vessel. He was able to achieve a "shimmering" mirror-like gunmetal-black finish on his work. 
A member of María Martinez' extended family, Santana Roybal Martinez (1909-2002)  whose parents were also potters, learned from Maria and Julian Martinez and would sign her pots "Marie and Santana".  She was married to Maria and Julian's eldest son Adam Martinez. In 1943, when Julian died, Santana took over the task of polishing and decorating Maria's work. When Maria became too old to fire her pots herself, Santana took on that process.  Santana and Adam Martinez became well-known artists in their own right, and their work can be found in numerous private and public collections.   
Carmelita Vigil Dunlap (born 1925), was raised by her aunts Maria Martinez and Desideria Martinez. She began producing black-on-black ware in the 1950s as well as other styles of pottery.  Other members of the Martinez family and extended family also work in the burnished black-on-black style including three daughters of Carmelita Vigil Dunlap: Linda Dunlap (born 1955), Jeannie Mountain Flower Dunlap (born 1953), Cynthia Star Flower Dunlap (born 1959), as well as Carmelita's niece Martha Apple Leaf Fender (born 1950). 
Rose Cata Gonzales (1900–1989) was known for her polished blackware as well as black-on-black pottery, and is credited for innovating a deeply carved style in the 1930s. While she was born at Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), she married into the San Ildefonso Pueblo. She and her son Tse-Pé (born 1940) would sometimes collaborate on works. Tse-pé and his wife Jennifer have worked collaboratively for years gathering and cleaning clay, making, polishing and firing pots.  
Barbara Gonzales produces inventive blackware that is incised with delicate parallel-line work revealing an underlayer of red clay to produce a modified black-on-black appearance. She often inlays these pots with semiprecious stones and coral. 
Crucita Gonzalez Calabaza (Blue Corn) (1920–1999) was influenced by Maria Martinez, having watched her work on the pueblo. She is known for her polychrome work as well as her black-on-black work. 
Five generations of potters of the Tafoya family of Kha'po Owingeh have been producing incised blackware and later, smooth-surfaced black-on-black ware, notably the matriarch potter Sara Fina Tafoya 1863–1949).    Both Sara Fina (Autumn Flower) and her husband Geronimo (White Flower) produced polished blackware, however it was Sara Fina who expected nothing but "perfection from her children in their ceramic endeavors", while Geronimo was primarily concerned with cultivating food for the family. She was considered the "outstanding Tewa potter of her time" in relation to the beauty, size, and variety of her ceramic work. Some of her work was produced in micaceous clay, but it was making polished blackware, and later carved black-on-black ware where she excelled. 
Sara Fina's daughter Margaret Tafoya (Corn Blossom), born 1904,  and her granddaughter LuAnn Tafoya (born 1938) also create black-on-black work. LuAnn learned polishing techniques from her mother starting at age twelve, before she learned to make her own pots. Once she began making her own pots, she challenged her abilities by working at a large scale her first storage pot was 23 inches tall. She learned from her family the importance of keeping true to tradition working with specific designs and their meanings, digging local clay and open-flame firing techniques. 
Another daughter of Sara Fina Tafoya, Christina (Tafoya) Naranjo (1891–1980) is also well known for her blackware, as is her granddaughter Mary Cain (1915–2010), great-granddaughter Linda Cain (born 1949) and her great-great-granddaughter Tammy Garcia (born 1969).  Garcia cites the women artists in her family as her role models from whom she learned everthing from digging and cleaning and tempering clay to building pots, ornamention, and firing techniques. Her geometric surface design sensibility is inspired by Mimbres, Acoma and Zuni pottery. 
You can look at pottery, like Mimbres or the ancient Puebloan pieces and see there's a story there. Their history wasn't recorded in books – they designed it on their vessels. detailing everything from different plants and animals in the area to cultural events and local stories. – Tammy Garcia 
Nathan Youngblood (born 1954), a great-grandson of Sara Fina Tafoya, produces carved black-on-black ware in addition to other styles of ceramic art inspired by his grandmother, Margaret Tafoya.  He lived with his grandparents for a while, and there he learned the symbolism behind designs from this grandfather, Alcario Tafoya, and also how and where to dig clay. He assisted his grandmother with the polishing process and learned about different clay bodies and firing techniques from her. Youngblood considers the design process itself as essential to "conveying his message using the symbols of a prayer." 
Nancy Youngblood (born 1955) is mainly known for her deeply carved, ribbed sculptural vessels in blackware and redware, however she also produces some black-on-black ware.  Her son, Christopher Youngblood (born 1989) is an emerging artist who is a great-great-grandson of Sara Fina Tafoya, great-grandson of Margaret Tafoya. He learned the craft alongside his mother and credits her as his "best teacher" because her expectations were so high. His highly-polished, precisely-carved black-on-black ware often features images of birds, koi and serpents. Because of his labor-intensive process he only makes a few pieces per year. 
Toni Roller (born 1935) is a granddaughter of Sara Fina Tafoya has been a guardian of the Santa Clara cultural traditions throughout her life as an artist. Her son, Jeff Roller and grandsons Ryan Roller and Jordan Roller, all of whom are potters have been inspired by her work. She taught them to "start from scratch and do it the old way".  Another granddaughter of Sara Fina Tafoya, Mida Tafoya (born 1931), and her daughter, Sherry Tafoya (born 1956) produce black-on-black ware.    Sara Fina Tafoya's son, Camillo Sunflower Tafoya (1902–1905) of Kha'po Owingeh is known for his carved blackware vessels.  His daughter, Grace Medicine Flower is known for her miniature pottery. She experiments with mixing different clay bodies and combining black-on-black and redware techniques in the same pot.  Virginia Tafoya Ebelacker, a daughter of Margaret Tafoya produced traditional black-on-black ware until about 1951 when she began introducing her jewelry-making skills into her ceramic work. She developed an innovative style of inlaying silver and turquoise elements into her ceramic work.  Autumn Borts–Medlock (born 1967) comes from the matrilineal legacy of women potters, she is a great-great granddaughter of Sara Fina Tafoya, great-granddaughter of Christina Naranjo, granddaughter of Mary Cain and daughter of Linda Cain. Her work carries on the tradition of incised and carved black-on-black ware, as well as other forms of pottery. Her unique carving style is precise and pictorial she credits her mother with encouraging her to express an individual, unique design sensibility. 
Many other members of the extended Tafoya family have continued in the tradition of Sara Fina Tafoya to produce black-on-black ware including Mela Youngblood (1931–1991), Agapita Tafoya (1904–1959), Lucy Year Flower Tafoya (born 1935), Kelli Little Kachina (born 1967), Joy Cain (born 1947), and Myra Little Snow (born 1962). 
The Heard Museum in collaboration with the Erie Art Museum produced two survey exhibitions, The Pottery of Margaret Tafoya, and Generation, A Survey of Margaret Tafoya's Descendants. The exhibitions focused on her distinct style of incised black-on-black ware and other styles such as polychrome, to unify historic, traditional functional pots into modern art forms. The shows highlighted three generations of Tafoya ceramic artists.  In 1983, the Denver Art Museum produced an exhibition of over 100 ceramic objects by six generations of the Tafoya family. Tafoya was named a National Heritage Fellow by the National Endowment for the Arts in 1984. 
Several members of the Chavarria family descending from matriarch potter Pablita Chavarria (born 1914) are well known for their black-on-black ware. These include Teresita Naranjo (1919–1999), Clara Shije (born 1924), Reycita Naranjo (born 1926), Elizabeth Naranjo (born 1929), Betty Naranjo (born 1956), Florence Browning (born 1931), Mary Singer (born 1936), Stella Chavarria (born 1939), Mildred Chavarria (born 1946), Jennifer Naranjo (born 1955) and Loretta (Sunday) Chavarria. 
Members of the Gutierrez family of Kha'po Owingeh descending from matriarch potter Leocadia Gutierrez are known for their black-on-black ware, specifically Severa Tafoya (1890–1973) and Robert Cleto Nichols (Tall Mountain, born 1961). Their daughter, Angela Tafoya Baca (1927–2014) produced carved blackware pottery. 
Linda and Merton Sisneros are also known for their black-on-black ware. 
In the 1920's the San Ildefonso (Pueblo P'ohwhóge Owingeh) black-on-black style began to flourish, and several artists were inspired by Nampeyo (1959–1942), of Hano, a Tewan pueblo on the East Mesa of Hopiland. Although her work looked very different from that of the artists working in the pueblos of the Rio Grande Valley, the depth of her knowledge influenced the artists working at P'ohwhóge Owingeh. 
Hopi–Tewa potter Helen Naha (Feather Woman, 1922–1993) of the village of Polacca, south of First Mesa (Hopi: Wàlpi), produced black-on-black ware in addition to other styles. 
Artists from Kewa Pueblo (Eastern Keres: [kʰewɑ], Navajo: Tó Hájiiloh, formerly known as Santo Domingo Pueblo), Ohkay Owingeh (Tewa: [ʔòhkèː ʔówĩ̂ŋgè], formerly known as San Juan Pueblo), and Picuris Pueblo (Tiwa: P'įwweltha [p’ī̃wːēltʰà]) also produce black-on-black ware, but in lesser quantities, as their primary ceramic work is mostly produced in other styles. 
Harrison Begay Jr. (born 1961), a Navajo artist who is part Hopi, Jemez and Zuni learned black-on-black techniques from his wife and her family who are from Santa Clara Pueblo. His pots are produced with traditional polished and matte black surfaces, and are deeply carved revealing traces of the red clay underneath the oxidized surface. 
Several contemporary artists have created works honoring the pottery of their ancestors.  As a tribute to María Martinez and to Northern New Mexico's car culture, Rose Bean Simpson, a contemporary sculptor and second-generation Santa Clara Pueblo ceramic artist, created a museum installation titled Maria, that included a 1985 Chevy El Camino hot-rod custom-painted with traditional black-on-black motifs. 
The Earliest Pottery of Beth-Shan
IN the latter part of 1933 the tenth season of the excavations by the University Museum, Philadelphia, at Beth-shan was completed. This important Palestinian city, which lies on the banks of the small river Jalûd at the eastern end of the Valley of Jezreel and overlooks the Jordan Valley, has had a long history. 1 On the summit of the great mound, Tell el-Hosn, which forms the nucleus of the site, were found the ruins of a Byzantine church overlaid by the remains of a still later (Arab) period, and at lower levels notable discoveries have been made of earlier periods, especially those of the Egyptian domination under the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties.
At the end of the season of 1931 the excavations had reached a stratum —described as Level XB—about thirteen meters (forty-three feet) below the topmost level, containing pottery and objects dating from the second period of the Middle Bronze Age, somewhere about 1700 Lc., the time of the Hyksos domination in Palestine. When work was resumed in 1933 it was deemed advisable to carry the excavations down to virgin soil in a restricted area, with a view to discovering the depth and nature of the underlying levels. As a result of the season’s work a stratified succession of occupation-levels has been discovered, going back to an earlier date than any such series hitherto excavated in Palestine. The object of this article is to publish, with the least possible delay, a representative series of pottery types extending from below the Hyksos levels to virgin soil consequently only a few objects of stone and copper are illustrated in the accompanying plates, and finds of the MB II period are left out of account, as are also the flint implements, of which quantities were found at all levels.
A report of the 1933 season has appeared in the Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund (July, 1934, page 123), so it will be sufficient to record here that we dug to a depth of 8.50 meters in an area measuring about 24 by 16 meters through eight definite levels (numbered XI to XVIII) representing perhaps twelve separate periods of rebuilding, and finally came upon the pit dwellings dug in virgin soil by the earliest inhabitants of the site. For convenience in illustrating the pottery we have made a threefold division of the levels, beginning with the lowest, as follows: (i) Levels XVIII, XVII and XVI, on PLATE I-III, (ii) Levels XV, XIV and XIII, on PLATES IV-VI, and (iii) Levels XII and XI, on PLATES VII-X. Though these divisions represent conspicuous changes in the character of the pottery, it cannot be assumed that there was any interruption in the occupation of the site until the end of the Early Bronze Age there were no sterile layers or burnt strata between any of the levels, and we saw no reason for doubting that the process of building and rebuilding continued without a break during all the periods that are dealt with in this article. There was, moreover, a certain amount of overlapping of pottery types from one group to the next. The plates illustrating this article are the work of Miss E. T. Talbot, from the drawings made by Boulos Eff. El Araj, the draughtsman of the expedition. The level from which each object comes is shown in Roman figures, but it often happens that a similar type is found at other levels, as will be indicated in the following description of the pottery.
1. Pits in Virgin Soil
The dwelling-pits which had been dug to a depth of three to five feet in the red soil of the hill were filled with somewhat moist earth of a grey colour which seemed to indicate the presence of decayed vegetable matter. Distributed throughout the depth of this filling was a considerable quantity of pottery in a very fragmentary condition. The ware is poorly baked and gritty, usually light brown in colour, sometimes red the vessels are hand-made and traces of a red slip or wash are often visible on the exterior surfaces. No complete shapes were found but the following features are worthy of note: (i) fragments of jar-necks of upright shape like PLATE 1, 10 and 25, and a fragment with a raised band round the base of the neck with oblong nicks incised in it 2 (ii) bases of small vessels, flat, concave or slightly convex, from 10 to 6 cm. in diameter or even less (iii) pot-rims sloping inwards, shaped like PLATE I, 22 and 26, but quite undecorated one with a small lug handle near the rim is 9 cm. in diameter, others 14 and 15 cm. (iv) a fragment (light brown ware, red slip) apparently from a stand or vase on a high base like PLATE III, 14, but broken at top and bottom. By far the most numerous class of fragments in the pits is the loop handles, examples of which are shown in PLATE II, 20-27, and which are as distinctive of the Pits and of Level XVIII as the various forms of ledge handles are of the levels above. Particular attention may he drawn to the very broad shape of number 20 (which has a light red slip) and the more ornamental form of number 24 we have several examples of both these types. We may note that with two of the handles we have the rims of small pots [PLATE II, 25 and 27], of which the former is decorated with a linear design in red paint on the buff surface of the vase. This red painted decoration is of considerable interest, as it only occurs on a few fragments and is not found above Level XVIII. PLATE III, 18, part of a bowl or pot about 30 cm. in diameter with a small knob near the rim, is particularly noticeable for the bands of chevrons which form part of the decoration the same motive recurs on PLATE III, 17, and on another sherd from Level XVIII as well as on the fragment, PLATE III, 20, which is of peculiar shape, like a loop handle with a projection or knob (now broken off) on the outer side. In conclusion we should note the small conical object—perhaps a stopper—of clay, PLATE III, 15. and may mention that besides the pottery the Pits contained numerous flint implements, two flat limestone whorls, resembling PLATE VI, 21, and a fragment of a small basalt mortar.
2. Level XVIII
This level consisted of a few walls and bins, standing about 0.70 m. above the level of virgin soil and built mainly of small bricks with rounded tops, like the plano-convex bricks of Babylonia. The pottery, a good deal of which comes from the filling below the level of the walls, is of the same general type as that found in the Pits the same shapes of loop handles all recur, together with others shown in PLATE II, 15-17, and one with incised notches, number 19. A conspicuous feature of the typical pot or jar from Level XVIII is the surrounding band roughly modelled or impressed with the fingers examples are given on PLATE I, and besides those noted as being from this level we found others resembling PLATE I, 4, 7, 10 and 11. Similar bands run round near the bases of jars (as PLATE III, 9) and sherds are found with two such bands meeting at an angle. Practically all the vessels have flat or concave bottoms, one ring-base was noted and one small rounded bottle or juglet fragment. The ware is usually light-coloured, a red or brown wash is sometimes applied to the surface, but not in the case of the large jars. Painted decoration is very rare it may be observed on PLATE I, 19, 22, 26, and PLATE III, 17, and was found in addition on one sherd in the form of a band of chevrons, on another in parallel streaks about 3 mm. wide, and (traces only) on a vessel of the same shape as PLATE III, 18. Red seems to have been the only colour used, with the doubtful exception of PLATE I, 22, in which instance the design below the rim is brown (unlike the red band below) and may originally have been black.
Ledge handles were scarcely found at all in Level XVIII. The only exceptions were two with indented edges like PLATE II, 5 and 8, an unusual double form, 13, and a small plain example, 14, all of which lay in the debris below Level XVII and ought, perhaps, to be reckoned as belonging to that stratum. The same applies to a single fragment of grey-black burnished ware. Among other fragments we noted one like PLATE in, 14, but broken at top and bottom, and part of some kind of stand with oval apertures, with which may be compared PLATE III, 16. Objects other than pottery included the mace-head, of hard grey stone, PLATE III, 27, and the turquoise spacer-bead, 28, which is not unlike one found recently at Megiddo. 3 Flint implements were fairly numerous and resembled those found in the Pits 4 there were also a few bone points.
3. Level XVII
This level, on which stood a large number of clay bins and a few walls, mainly constructed of the same type of small bricks as those of the level below, contained much the same sort of pottery as we have been describing, notably the large jars and pots with bands of finger impressions. The types noted as being found in Level XVII included those shown on PLATE 1, 7 and 13-17, to which may be added such other rim-shapes as PLATE I, 18, 19 and 22 (undecorated), and PLATE IV, 16. Plain hole-mouthed pot-rims also occurred.
Small loop handles like those of Level XVIII were still common, together with a long form pierced by a circular hole, like PLATE n, 6, and lug handles set on in pairs, as PLATE II, 11, but they were beginning to be superseded by ledge handles of the earliest known type, with finger-impressions along their edges. As a rule they are somewhat deeply indented [PLATE II, 7-9], but another type with shallow impressions [PLATE II, 2] is found also at this level.
Fragments with a dark grey or black burnished surface began to appear in Level XVII one of these [PLATE III, 5] is characteristic in having a projecting hand with a sinuous outline, such as we see in the bowl from the level above [PLATE III, 4]. The fragments include several similar rims, a small handle like those of PLATE III, 2, and the neck of a juglet which, if not found at so low a level, would have passed for one of the Hyksos period. The ware is sometimes brown, sometimes grey, with a grey or black slip, usually burnished on the exterior surface and on the rim, and sometimes attaining a high degree of polish. We may observe in passing that this class of pottery is confined to Levels XVII, XVI and XV and has a very limited range of shapes. No other objects from Level XVII seem to call for particular remark except the small jar, PLATE III, 10, around the shoulder of which runs a row of small projections, much chipped but apparently of the same conoid form as those on the bowl from Level XV, PLATE V, 28. The mace-head, PLATE III, 26, is of hard red stone we may mention also a basalt whorl, a stone ring-bead of irregular shape, and three pointed implements of bone.
4. Level XVI
This level contained several curved walls, all built with flat bricks, and a house of apsidal shape in which was a small area paved with fragments of pottery. In and near the southern end of this house we found the copper implements illustrated on PLATE III, 21-25 though they lay not far from the edge of the mound and the possibility of their having been intruded from a higher stratum cannot be absolutely ignored, the fact that they were found just at the floor level and not quite close together disposes us to believe that they belong to the period of Level XVI.
The pottery included a considerable quantity of the grey-black burnished ware described above as far as the shapes could be ascertained the fragments all seemed to belong to bowls with everted rims such as PLATE III, 1, 2 and 4. We must point out that number 3 on the same plate, though of similar shape, does not belong to the same class, being of buff ware with traces of red wash.
As the rims illustrated on PLATE I show, the bands with finger-impressions form a common decoration. To the pots we may add others resembling PLATE I, 15 and 26, and hole-mouth shapes like PLATE IV, 4 (with a row of nicks on the shoulder) and PLATE IX, 7 and 8. One fragment of a spouted pot [PLATE I, 8] was found there were also fragments of thin spouts like PLATE V, 3 and 4. Rims of large bowls with finger-print bands (compare PLATE I, 17) were also found.
The small loop handles of the lower strata are now definitely superseded by ledge handles these are mainly of the indented type [PLATE II, 2-5 and 8], but we must note the appearance of a few plain examples (one like PLATE IX, 17) besides PLATE II, 1, which has two lines scratched upon it. It is regrettable that no large vessel with ledge handles could be restored so as to give an idea of its shape. Among the few objects from this level shown on PLATE III we may note number 8, a sherd with an incised mark it should also be added that together with a number of flint implements there was a polished stone celt 4.6 cm. in length.
5. Level XV
This belongs to the second division of our levels, having more in common with Levels XIV and XIII than with those below. The plan of Level XV was somewhat confused owing to the rebuilding which had taken place, but the straight walls of rooms which occupied the greater part of the area showed an advance on the scattered buildings of the earlier strata.
The most conspicuous change in the pottery is the disappearance of the wide-mouthed jars decorated with bands of finger-impressions. In place of these bands we sometimes have a small rope-pattern, as in PLATE IV, 7 and 26, or rows of diagonal nicks. The rims, as distinct from the bodies of the larger jars, are apparently wheel-made their shapes resemble those of the levels above, in particular PLATE IV, 8, 10, 13, 17 and 21, and PLATE IX, 10 and 16, most of which apparently belong to large jars or pithoi like PLATE IV, 25, and are covered with a red or brown slip. The jars themselves are decorated with streaks of red, brown or orange paint, often forming a lattice pattern of broad lines crossed by narrower ones. Small circular handles were often applied to the shoulders of large jars, but they were not firmly attached and only a few single ones were found in position, so it is uncertain whether two or more should be restored on each jar.
Hole-mouth rims were fairly common at Level XV though a large number of shapes exist they vary little from level to level, so we find in the same stratum resemblances to PLATE I, 2, and PLATE IX, 7 and 8, as well as those drawn on PLATE IV, 4, 6 and 7. Spouts occurred of shapes PLATE V, 2, 3 and 4.
Plain and indented ledge handles were found in approximately equal proportions the types are PLATE II, 2 and 3, and PLATE VI, 14-18 of these, number 16 may perhaps be regarded as a transitional form between the indented type and the `pushed-up’ handle which becomes common in the levels above. Loop handles occurred on pots of such shapes as PLATE V, 26, and PLATE VI, 5 and 6.
A few fragments of black burnished ware, one of which is shown on PLATE V, 27, form a link with the levels below one of these is part of a stand in the base of which is an aperture with a rounded top. A rim with reddish-brown surface, of the shape seen in PLATE 1I1, 3, is one of the small number of burnished fragments from this level. We may note that no pattern burnishing and scarcely any examples of bowls with inturned rims were found.
The conoid projections on the bowl fragment, PLATE V, 28, (buff ware with light red slip on the exterior) recall the similar decoration on a jar from Level XVII [PLATE III, 101 we may note that this feature seems to be more common at Megiddo, being found there in all the lower stages, from IV to VII. 5
Among other finds were the limestone mace-head, PLATE VI, 27, and a limestone whorl and some basalt rings of forms 20, 23 and 25 on the same plate.
6. Level XIV
This level contained a number of comparatively well-built rooms. There were so many signs of reconstruction that we must consider the level as representing two periods of occupation. The pottery, though falling in the same group as that of Level XV, displayed, as we shall see, a number of features not observed hitherto.
The forms and decoration of the large jars and hole-mouth pots are the same as have been mentioned in describing the level below practically all the shapes illustrated on PLATE IV (except the stands 23 and 24) were to be found in Level XIV, together with PLATE V, 24, and others resembling PLATE IX, 7, 8, 10, 15 and 16. One of the few complete shapes is the jar with loop handles set low down, PLATE IV, 27, of light brown ware with a light red slip covering the exterior. Spouted vessels [PLATE V, 2, 3, 4, 11] include big bowls or pots and vases with thin spouts covered with dark red or brown slip and, in many cases, burnished. 6
Lug handles made their appearance on vases like PLATE V, 9 and 10 (note the X mark painted on the base of the latter) somewhat high up in Level XIV part of a small lug-handled pot was found lower down, as well as the fragment with red painted lattice pattern, PLATE V, 8. A small tubular handle, 45 mm. in length, was of the type shown on PLATE VIII, 11. We would also call attention to the forms of loop handles found on jugs [PLATE V, 12 and 13], bowls and so forth [PLATE VI, 2-5]. Ledge handles of the ordinary plain types (such as PLATE IX, 17, PLATE VI, 8) were very common at this level we may note the incised marks on PLATE VI, 10 and 11, and the small handle on the side of a bowl, number 14, covered with light red slip. Hole-mouth pots sometimes have one or two small handles near the rim, as in PLATE IX, 9. Indented handles of types PLATE II, 2 and 3, continued into Level XIV those on the bowl fragments, PLATE VI, 12 and 13 (with others from this level) show a tendency towards pushing the indented edges up or downwards, a development which is carried on in the type PLATE VI, 7 (found in Level XIV also) and still further in forms found at higher levels, as shown on PLATE IX, 19-22. As far as our observation goes, none of our ledge handles can properly be described as ‘wavy,’ in the sense of being applied in an undulating line against the body of the vase, like some Egyptian examples with us the base of the handle is straight or slightly arched and it is only towards the outer edge that the pushing-up process sometimes produces a wavy effect. 7
Of the two bowls, 12 and 13 on PLATE VI, the former has a reddish-brown wash on the exterior surface, the latter a brown wash laid on in streaks over a lighter slip. Among those with loop handles, number 2 has a red burnished surface, number 4 is buff with a brown wash forming a criss-cross pattern. Bowls with inturned rims appear frequently in Level XIV, the types including PLATE V, 17, 20 and 21, and PLATE VIII, 22. Several fragments have red burnished surfaces, and we now find examples of pattern burnishing, as illustrated on a bowl [PLATE V, 20], a pot , and a rim of unusual form [PLATE IV, 15]. We must note also the appearance of a type of bowl [PLATE V, 16], which becomes fairly common (compare PLATE VIII, 9) and which usually has a red or reddish-brown slip more or less well burnished.
Among miscellaneous objects in Level XIV were a bone point, the fragment of a white stone pendant [PLATE VI, 22], the ring or mace-head  and the smaller rings of basalt (like 23 and 25), which were numerous enough to form a characteristic feature of this stratum.
7. Level XIII
This, unlike the two levels below, represented a single period of occupation. At the northern end of our area were three well-built rooms, probably part of a house of some importance, divided by a narrow lane from a complex of smaller rooms which extended to the edge of the Tell. The three rooms (illustrated in the P. E. F. Quarterly Statement, July, 1934, PLATE IV, figure 1) bore traces of having been destroyed by fire. The bases of a number of large store-jars were ranged along the walls of the middle room, the contents of some of them comprising beans, lentils and barley mixed with wheat. 8 Unfortunately the upper parts of these pithoi were so broken and scattered that it was not possible to make a complete restoration of any one of them, but the general shape, with a characteristic rim, appears in PLATE IV, 25 numbers 10 and 11 on the same plate, with several others like them and a plain upright jar-neck, 12.5 cm. in diameter, were found in the same room. The bodies of the jars were decorated for the most part in the same way as those of Level XIV, with streaks of red or brown wash one fragment, however, with a heavy rim had combed decoration on the shoulder as well as a red slip. In general the pottery of Levels XIII and XIV is very uniform, but some of the shapes in the former are recorded as being like finds from Level XII, for example PLATE VIII, 20, 22 and 23 (bowls with pattern burnishings), PLATE IX, 7, 8 and 9 (hole-mouth) and 15 and 16 (jar-necks) and a burnished vase with lug handles like PLATE X, 6, but most of these had very close analogies in Level XIV also. Spouted pots, such as PLATE V, 1 and 2, were of frequent occurrence, but we only observed one example of the longer and thinner type of spout, with a smooth dark red slip on buff ware. Ledge handles were not very numerous in Level XIII in addition to the shapes PLATE VI, 7.9, the earlier, indented, type, PLATE VI, 16, was still represented.
High loop handles were found attached to long thin necks, but no com-plete jug of this type could be restored. Lug-handled vases include one like PLATE V, 10 other examples are numbers 5 to 7 on the same plate, of which the last-named should, perhaps, be restored with a somewhat more flattened base, like another fragment (with a plain drab surface) lying near it.
Numerous bowl fragments appeared at this level, especially of the types with inturned rims like those illustrated on PLATE V (including number 21) and numbers 20, 22 and 23 on PLATE VIII, as well as one with a loop handle, PLATE VI, 1. Occasionally the rim is given an outward turn as in PLATE V, 18 (with which compare PLATE VIII, I6). PLATE V, 16, belongs to the class of brown-red burnished bowls already noted in Level XIV many others have a red slip or wash on the exterior and (as in number 19) over the rim. Pattern burnishing is found on the interior of bowls more frequently than on the outer surface, as in number 15 this example was fragmentary and only one handle was actually found—a small ledge handle with a hole through the middle and two small circles sunk in it but not going right through. The small handles of number 22 are little more than knobs.
Before leaving this level we must call attention to the two stands, PLATE IV, 23 and 24, near which were found fragments of an expanding trumpet base all these objects are coated with a red slip, and the bases of the two stands are perforated. They may have been lamps or incense-burners as the pinched lip of number 23 is blackened by fire. We must also record the presence of a few sherds with combing on the surface and two fragments of juglets with stump bases.
The flint implements from Level XIII are of remarkable quality, especially the long ribbon knives which are not equalled at any other level. Stone objects include the limestone mace-head and whorls, PLATE VI, 19-21, and several basalt rings like those found in the level below.
8. Level XII
This level, which consisted in the main of somewhat insignificant rooms, was excavated over a wider area than were the lower strata. There had been a good deal of rebuilding in this level and we may reckon it as representing two occupation-periods. It belongs with Level XI to our third group (PLATES VII-X), having for its dominating characteristic an abundance of lustrous burnished pottery quite unlike anything found in the levels below. The appearance of this pottery (called Khirbet Kerak ware, from a site at the lower end of the Sea of Galilee where it was first noticed) seemed at first sight to constitute our only possible starting-point for the first period of the Middle Bronze Age (MB I), since it lay immediately below the MB II strata. On the other hand, the types found with it in our excavations included some such as were found in Tomb A at Jericho, which Professor Albright is disposed to assign to the Early Bronze Age (EB III) ‘between the twenty-third and the twenty-first centuries, roughly speaking, or two-three centuries earlier than the excavator’s [i.e. Professor Garstang’s] tentative chronology.’ 9 This conclusion apparently rests on Professor Albright’s dating for his levels at Tell Beit Mirsim, which makes stratum J contemporary with Tomb A at Jericho and strata fall between the twenty-first and the nineteenth centuries. The evidence from Beth-shan inclines us to question the length of these periods the pottery of Levels XII and XI is markedly uniform, the presence in both of stump-based juglets shows them to be approximately contemporary with Tomb A at Jericho, while the fold-over (or envelope) type of ledge handle brings them into relation with stratum I at Tell Beit Mirsim. In our Level XI the pottery of MB II is found close alongside, though separate from, the Khirbet Kerak ware, but if we follow Professor Albright’s dating we shall have to assume that our area was deserted before the appearance of the MB II wares for a very long period, perhaps from about the twenty-first to the eighteenth century. As a matter of terminology, however, we should certainly prefer to classify a pottery group which includes flat-bottomed jars, ledge handles and lug-handled pots as EB III, even though it might be assigned with some probability to the first centuries of the second millennium.
We must not omit to mention one feature common to both Levels XI and XII, namely the presence of a number of burials, all of which were furnished with pottery characteristic of MB II, and some with scarabs of Hyksos types. No earlier pottery was found with these burials and they therefore fall outside the scope of this article, but we cannot ignore the disturbance in our levels resulting from the digging of the burial pits, one of which went down as low as Level XIII.
In Level XII we can still observe a number of pottery types resembling those of Level XIII, some of which we may briefly enumerate: PLATE IV, 8 (heavy jar rim), PLATE V, 1, 2 (spouts), 9 (lug-handled vase), 16 (red burnished bowl) and bowls such as numbers 18 and 20, which have their counterparts in PLATE VIII, 16 and 20, respectively.
The characteristic jar-neck of Level XII is of a flaring type, somewhat inadequately represented by PLATE IX, 15, since the rim is often turned down or outwards, though in a less elaborate fashion than numbers 11 and 12 on the same plate. Hole-mouth rims were found in abundance, PLATE IX, 7 and 8 being typical examples.
Among the bowls on PLATE VIII, numbers 9, 10 and 11 have red burnished surfaces, number 10 on the inside only, the design below the base (with which compare PLATE VII, 4) being painted red on a light brown slip the concave bases of numbers 9 and 10 resemble those of the lustrous burnished ware. Unburnished bowls are usually coated with a red slip, pattern burnishing is very common on the interior of bowls or dishes, such as PLATE VIII, 20, 23 and 25, and occurs on fragments of thick dishes like number 24 this fairly common type of heavy dish sometimes has a rim shaped like number 23. The inturned rim is often found, sometimes in the form of PLATE VIII, 22, also in fragments of deep bowls like PLATE IX, 18. Referring to PLATE IX, we may note the finding of a cooking-pot fragment like number 6 and of the lower part of a jar with a reddish-brown slip and pattern burnishing above the handles like number 27 streaks of red paint are to be observed on the small jar, number 23, and the deep bowl (with six small ledge handles), number 28 the cup, number 25, has a red wash over its inner and outer surfaces, and traces of a red slip remain on the stand, number 26, of which the bowl top is partly blackened by fire.
Ledge handles from Level XIII are illustrated on PLATE IX, and with them appear such types as PLATE VI, 7 and 8, and PLATE IX, 19. It will be seen that they display considerable variety ranging from the pushed-up or wavy, PLATE IX, 22 and 19, to the fully developed fold-over or envelope type, number 14. The plain form, number 17, also persists, so we have nothing analogous to the state of affairs at Megiddo, where plain ledge handles were only found in Stages III-V, corresponding approximately to our Level XIV.
Turning to PLATE X, we may note that wide-mouthed lug-handled pots appear at this level, one of which, number 10, has incised decoration on the shoulder. The juglet, number 16, is a form found also in Level XII. Of more particular interest are the stump-based juglets numbers 17 and 22, as fragments of these bases were very common at this level, whereas only two were found in Level XIII. Number 17 has a red slip which is burnished but not lustrous the single protuberance opposite the handle is to be noted, as the same feature appears on a jug of lustrous ware from the same room.
The lids with knobs, PLATE X, 1-5, are a distinguishing feature of both Levels XII and XI. They vary a good deal in size and shape, some have handles (numbers 2 and 3), some are grooved (number 3), others pierced (4 and 5) to take a string or thong by which they could be attached to the handles of a jar numbers 2 and 3 have a reddish-brown burnished slip.
Another peculiarity of these two levels is a class of objects found only in fragments, of which two are drawn on PLATE X, numbers 14 and 18. As far as they could be restored, they appeared to consist of two upright sides or walls of pottery, more or less at a right angle to one another, but joining in a curve on the outside of the curve is a handle, on the inside a knob (number 14), and there is a knob on the inner side near each of the ends, which are vertical (number 18 shows an end on which a grotesque face has been roughly modelled) the top of each side is highest at the end and at the point of junction, with a more or less pronounced downward curve between, as the illustrations show. Only one fragment (number 14) is recorded as having signs of burning on it, but the only purpose that we could think of for these objects was to be used as fenders in front of a hearth, with perhaps a cooking-pot resting on the knobs we trust, however, that a more satisfactory suggestion may be forthcoming.
We can now turn our attention to the burnished Khirbet Kerak ware, which is found in great profusion in Level XII and in the lower part of Level Xl, and which is illustrated on PLATE VII and PLATE VIII, numbers 1-8. The lustrous polish of the surface slip, black or red, makes this one of the few classes of Palestinian pottery which it is a pleasure to handle and to behold. Unfortunately the fabric is not very hard baked, and our finds were in consequence very fragmentary. The ware, which is not wheel-made, appears to have been introduced during the occupation of Level XII (presumably from the north, as it has not been noted in Southern Palestine), and is not found above Level XI as we could trace no evolution in the shapes employed, the finds from these two levels can be treated together. We would emphasize that among the fragments were some from large vessels with thick walls (e.g., a slightly concave jar-base about 27 cm. in diameter) showing that the lustrous surface was not confined to ornamental pieces. Bowls, large and small, form a large proportion of the shapes, PLATE VII, 1-4, 6 and 8, PLATE VIII, 1, 4, 5 and 7, and all these are mainly lustrous black on the outside, while the interior surfaces are burnished red, sometimes of a somewhat brownish shade. A decorative effect on the exterior surface was produced by so regulating the firing of the vessel that towards the rim the slip either burnt to a bright red (as PLATE VII, 3, 4, PLATE VIII, 7) or retained what was presumably its original colour, a light brown or fawn this colour sometimes appears between the red rim and the black body (e.g., PLATE VII, 1) and sometimes at the base (numbers 2 and 8) there is no clear line of demarcation at the junction of the various colours. The surface of the larger bowls is usually ornamented by a shallow fluting in parallel lines, such as might be made by the finger-tips, with narrow ridges between the depressions. A similar method is used to form a spiral ornament on PLATE VII, 3, while on number 4 we have a more elaborate design, apparently representing the sun’s disc with rays issuing from it, in low relief. It will be observed that on the painted fragment, PLATE VIII, 10, the rays are curved in the opposite direction.
Fluting or ribbing is very commonly seen on lustrous red fragments like PLATE VII, 5 and 7, which seem to form parts of hollow stands, often having a knob on the inside. Of similar shape, but smaller and furnished with a handle, is PLATE VIII, 6, on the mottled red, fawn and black surface of which an irregular pattern is incised, mainly geometric but possibly including, below the base of the now broken handle, an attempt to draw a figure the incised lines may perhaps have been filled in with white. This incised decoration is found only on one other small fragment.
The dish, PLATE VII, 9 (one of three found together), has an inturned rim and only one handle, which is pierced with two holes (compare numbers 10 and 11, from another room) the interior is brown, burnished, the exterior lustrous red, except for a pattern reserved in a light brown similar to that noted on the black bowls on the underside the linear design is red on light brown.
A similar technique is seen on some fragments of jugs (numbers 12-14, 18) another jug (number 16) has a small knob opposite the handle and yet another number (17) has fluted ornament. Each of these jugs has a lustrous red surface.
The fragment, PLATE VIII, 2, is red, somewhat less highly burnished it is apparently part of a circular stand with triangular apertures, a type of object which in various forms has a very long history. On the same plate, number 3 is one of several similar pointed projections, and is lustrous black the peculiar loop handle, number 8, is red the small bowl, number 5, has a somewhat dull black surface with a zig-zag on the neck which is the only instance noted of pattern burnishing in black on number 7 we see small knobs such as were found on a considerable number of highly burnished fragments.
Before passing to the next level we may draw attention to the small animal figure, roughly modelled, PLATE X, 20, to the limestone mace-head, number 23 (with another found in the MB II level set beside it for comparison), and to the fragment of flint (number 25) with a pentagram incised on its patinated surface.
9. Level XI
Like others we have noted, this level contained sufficient evidence of rebuilding to be regarded as representing two occupation-periods. The earlier resembled Level XII, conspicuously in the abundance of lustrous burnished pottery the later showed the same characteristics, but in addition contained a quantity of MB II pottery, which seemed to be of the fully developed Hyksos type, implying a definite break in the occupation of the site. We observed that this pottery (which was quite independent of the intrusive burials) though on the same level as the earlier wares, was not intermixed with them, so that each of the two classes occupied, as it were, separate patches of our area. Since we are not now dealing with the Hyksos wares and most of the earlier types have appeared in Level XII, we need not treat the pottery of Level XI at length.
Pots such as PLATE IX, 1 and 2, were not common the latter is of a gritty black ware, burning reddish in patches, of which a few fragments were found in the foundations of Level X and even intruding into that level. The wavy decoration incised on number 3 was likewise rare. PLATE IX, 4 and 6, are cooking pots of gritty brown ware one of the shape of number 6 has a plain ridge round it and a row of holes just below the rim. We have included for comparison a fragment, number 5, from the level above, with the rope pattern band immediately below the rim.
The jar-necks, PLATE IX, 11 and 12, are particularly elaborate examples of their kind in many instances the rim is somewhat more flaring. Many have a brown or red slip, but combed sherds were by no means common. All the ledge handles on PLATE IX have their counterpart in Level XI.
By way of summarising our results, we append a list of some of the more characteristic pottery types with the levels in which they were observed (ignoring isolated examples).
|Painted decoration, chevron design||XVIII (including Pits)|
|Loop handles, early type||XVIII-XVII|
|Bands with finger-impressions on jars, etc||XVIII-XVI|
|Grey-black burnished ware||XVII-XV|
|Ledge handles, indented type||XVII-XIV (XIII ?)|
|Ledge handles, plain type||XVI-XI|
|Ledge handles, pushed-up type||XIV-XI|
|Ledge handles, ‘envelope’ type||XII and XI|
|Lug handles (on bottles or pots)||XIV-XI|
|Fragments with combed decoration (rare)||XIII-XI|
|Juglets with stump bases||XIII (?), XII and XI|
|Lustrous burnishing (Khirbet Kerak ware)||XII and XI|
|Lids with knobs||XII and XI|
Dating of Levels
It may perhaps be expected that a word should be said regarding the absolute dating to be assigned to our levels. In respect of the lowest strata it may be that the red painted chevron decoration and the grey-black burnished bowls will eventually afford a clue, but we have not up to the present discovered analogies sufficiently close to be convincing, though the latter ware naturally directs our attention to Asia Minor. The recent excavations at Megiddo, unfortunately, do not provide material resembling the finds from our earliest group of levels a class of grey burnished bowls (their type 17, which extends from Stage VII to Stage IV) may be akin to ours, but the shapes are not the same. The lowest stage (VII) at Megiddo cannot be deemed earlier than the beginning of our Level XV, unless we assume that the typical culture of the Early Bronze Age was established there long before it reached Beth-shan. If we take the ledge handle as an obvious criterion, we find that the overlapping of the indented with the plain type occurs at Megiddo during Stages V and IV and at Beth-shan from Level XVI just into Level XIII, while the pushed-up type makes its appearance at their Stage IV and at our Level XIV, agreeing in this with the interned bowl-rim and pattern burnishing. Juglets with stump bases which begin to be found at Stage III just appear in Level XIII. This would seem to indicate an approximate synchronism between their Stage IV and our Level XIV, but perhaps rather during the second occupation-period of the latter, so that we can tentatively place the beginning of Level XIV somewhere about Stage V. For this the Megiddo evidence supplies some dating material in the form of jar-sealings, which the excavators assign to the early part of the early dynastic period of Mesopotamia, the first century or so of the third millennium. 10 Accepting this, we are driven to the conclusion that the end of our Level XVI, even if it is not earlier than the occupation of Stage VII, must be put back into the fourth millennium. It seems useless to speculate further with regard to the duration of the Levels XVII and XVIII and, more especially, of the Pits in virgin soil, which the primitive inhabitants may have occupied for centuries. On the other hand, if the earlier buildings of Level XIV are really to be dated so early as the twenty-ninth century, we have a very long period for two occupation-periods in Level XIV and one in Level XIII, even if we accept Professor Albright’s dating and assign the beginnings of Level XII to 2300 B. C. or thereabouts. On the whole it seems desirable, while bearing all these indications in mind, to suspend judgment for the present concerning the absolute dating of our finds.
1 See Alan Rowe, The Topography and History of Beth-shan, Philadelphia, 1930. ↪
2 See P. E. F. Quarterly Statement, July, 1934, PLATE II, figure 1. ↪
3 Engberg and Shipton, ‘Notes on the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Pottery of Megiddo,’ Chicago Oriental Institute Studies, No. 10 ↪
4 Flints, from Level XVIII are shown in P. E. F. Quarterly Statement, July, 1934, PLATE I, figure 2. ↪
5 Engberg and Shipton op. cit. pp. 19, 63, type 18. ↪
6 So also at Megiddo, type 23, op. cit. p. 20. ↪
7 In the Megiddo series (described in detail by Engberg and Shipton op. cit. p. 13 ff.) the ‘wavy type’ is probably the contemporary equivalent of our example PLATE VI, 13, 14 and 16, even though the treatment may not be exactly the same. ↪
8 Samples of seeds, etc., found in the jars were submitted for examination to the Botanical Department of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, whom I have to thank for this information. ↪
9 W. F. Albright, ‘Excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim, Fourth Campaign,’ A. A. S. 0. R., XIII (1931-2), p. 60. ↪
10 Engberg and Shipton, op. cit. p. 31 ff., P.E.F., Quarterly Statement, April, 1934, p. 90. ↪
Cite This Article
FitzGerald, Gerald M.. "The Earliest Pottery of Beth-Shan." The Museum Journal XXIV, no. 1 (March, 1935): 5-30. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.penn.museum/sites/journal/9462/
This digitized article is presented here as a historical reference and may not reflect the current views of the Penn Museum.
Black Pottery Juglet from Jordan - History
Kehrberg I. Selected lamps and pottery from the Hippodrome at Jerash. In: Syria. Tome 66 fascicule 1-4, 1989. pp. 85-97.
SELECTED LAMPS AND POTTERY FROM THE HIPPODROME AT JERASH
This preliminary report only introduces a small number of selected pottery fragments and lamps from the hippodrome at Jerash*. In this presentation emphasis has been placed on material which can be used as evidence to date the earliest and the latest phase of the history of the monument.1
There is only a small amount of Roman pottery (sherds) which comes from homogeneous and undisturbed levels and which can be used for dating the architectural context in which the sherds were found.2
Pottery fragments nos. 1, 2, 4 and 5 belong to a small sherds deposit found in the original earth/rubble fill, at the bottom of the foundation trench of the podium wall in chamber E44 (Ostrasz 1989: fig. 2). Fragment no. 3 comes from the fill between stones of the still standing remains of the transverse wall between chambers E52 and E53.3 These five fragments and the remaining thirty odd sherds of the deposit from E44 can all be dated to the second century A.D.
* I should like to thank A.-M. Rasson for her 2. Excavations revealed that large areas of the foun-
consultations and opinions on the hippodrome dation trench in chambers E44-E47 had been used in
pottery. I am indebted to A. Musa, the Inspector at Byzantine times for dumping pottery.
Jerash, for letting me publish lamps nos. 15-18 (excava- 3. Parts of the original fill were removed in 1985 for
tion of 1982). consolidation of the wall.
1. For detailed information on the excavations, see Ostrasz 1989: passim, of which this study forms an integral part.
Black Pottery Juglet from Jordan - History
Merrillees Robert Stuart. III. The Bronze Age Antiquities . In: Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes Chypriotes. Volume 40, 2010. pp. 29-37.
Cahiers du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 40, 2010
THE CYPRIOTE BRONZE AGE ANTIQUITIES
The following list does not attempt to redo the catalogues published by Decaudin (1987, p. 51-84) and Tsipopoulou (1998, p. 11-18), but to update them in the light of advances in the classification and dating of Cypriote ceramics of this period, and make some additions to the corpus which were not picked up by the previous two authors. It does not include the Mycenaean vases catalogued by Tsipopoulou (1998, p. 45-46, 48). It is a happy co-incidence that I should have occasion to review these pieces again as I first made notes on them over 35 years ago during a visit to Laon and received then the same co-operation from the Museum’s staff as I have had in the preparation of the present paper. Nor has it seemed necessary to illustrate them all once more, except those that have not previously been published, as the works by Decaudin and Tsipopoulou are complementary and readily available. My visit in May 2010 to the Musée in Laon, where I was extended every consideration by Caroline Jorrand, resulted in the discovery of three previously unidentified Cypriote Bronze Age vases, two of which, together with a bronze sword, must have entered the museum’s collections before the Second World War but cannot yet be specifically attributed to La Charlonie’s bequest. These last three objects have a registration number beginning with “ 0”, signifying that that they were part of the “ fonds ancien”, whereas the antiquities known to have belonged to the La Charlonie collection were given numbers starting with “ 37”, not because they were accessed by the Musée in that year but because they were registered in 1954 with this numerical prefix to commemorate the year they arrived in the Musée in Laon (Jorrand 1984, p. 3). While the two vases, 0.1074 and 0.1108, are authentic Cypriote artefacts, the attribution of the copper/ bronze sword, 0.517, to Cyprus and the La Charlonie collection remains to be verified. La Charlonie acquired some but not many bronzes, mostly of the Classical period. It is hard to believe that the vases at least were not part of his original collection. The other pot, 37.843, came from the La Charlonie bequest. MUSÉE DE LAON
In ancient times, pottery was highly utilitarian and functioned as tableware, cookware, for storage, and even for lighting. It is little wonder, then, that archaeologists find more pottery than any other artifact. Pottery-making was invented as early as the Neolithic era, originally in the form of rough, handmade vessels. Over time, the pottery wheel was invented, allowing potters to mass-produce smooth, uniform vessels. Pottery generally trended toward becoming thinner, smoother, and stronger over time, but development occurred earlier in some cultures than others.
Bronze Age Pottery: from the Bronze Age belonging to Canaanite populations was generally finely made, although not to the standard of later pottery. Characteristics include high, flaring rims on jars, flat-bottomed cooking pots, and both molded and incised decorations. In the Late Bronze Age, imported pottery from Cyprus found its way into the Holy Land. This pottery featured decorations painted in two colors. Both original imported pottery and locally made imitations exist.
Iron Age Pottery: During the Iron Age, two main people groups inhabited the Holy Land: The Israelites and the Philistines. Early Israelite pottery tended to be course, heavy, and poorly made. Storage jars with thickened rims are characteristic of this period, and most vessels were simple and undecorated. Later in the Iron Age, Israelite ancient pottery became much finer, and many examples feature glossy red burnishing. Philistine pottery contrasted strongly with that of the Israelites and featured elaborate paintings in one or two colors. Many examples exist of fanciful and elaborate forms, with some taking the shape of animals.
Greek Pottery: With Alexander the Great’s conquest of the known world, Greek culture became widespread. In the Holy Land, the Hasmoneans struggled to retain their Israelite culture and religion. Pottery in the Holy Land from this period was finer and smoother than that of previous periods, with forms that were reminiscent of those from the Bronze Age. In the broader Greek empire, pottery was highly decorated with black and red figures depicting action-packed scenes from their mythology.
Roman Pottery: The Roman Era was a time of great advancement, and this progress is reflected in the ancient pottery. At this time, the pottery became much thinner, smoother, and stronger. In the Holy Land, clear cultural distinctions appeared between Jewish pottery and that of the Romans. The Jewish pottery was generally plain and undecorated, although many vessels featured ribbing to increase the strength of the vessels. The pottery of the Romans, on the other hand, was highly decorated. One type, eastern terra sigillata ware, was polished red and featured impressed designs. Oil lamps, made by pressing clay into a mold, often featured scenes depicting Roman gods or other characters.
Although the style and quality of pottery changed throughout history and across cultures, many vessel types remained constant. These include bowls, craters, cooking pots, storage jars, jugs, juglets, and oil lamps.
Antique Bowls: Bowls represent the most common type of tableware throughout the history of the Holy Land. Many are just large enough to contain one serving of food. They are often wide and shallow, perhaps designed to allow hot food to cool evenly. And (Elisha)said, “Bring me a new bowl, and put salt in it” (2 Kings 2:20).
Craters: Craters likely represent the serving dishes of the ancient world, although they may have functioned in the storage of food, as well. They are typically widest at their midpoint, and sometimes they feature handles. (Jesus) answered and said, “He who dipped his hand with Me in the dish will betray me” (Matthew 26:23).
Ancient Cooking Pots: Cooking pots functioned in food preparation. They would have been set directly in the fire, and many cooking pots remain blacked on the bottom from contact with the flame. In the Middle Bronze Age, most cooking pots featured flat bottoms and straight sides, but beginning in the Late Bronze Age, a globular shape became popular. This shape continued through the Roman period, although the neck became smaller over time and handles appeared. So Gideon…put the broth in a pot and he brought (it) out to (the Angel of God) under the terebinth tree and presented (it) (Judges 6:19).
Ancient Storage Jars: Storage jars provided a convenient way of storing commodities such as grains and liquids. Large jars, known as pithoi, could be over five feet tall, and were often permanent fixtures in ancient homes. Smaller jars were more portable. Storage jars feature small necks and often exhibit two or four handles. Jars from the Bronze and Iron Ages often taper to a rounded point at the base, while jars from later periods typically feature an elongated globular shape. Then (Elijah) looked, and there by his head was a cake baked on coals, and a jar of water (1 Kings 19:6).
Jugs: Jugs are smaller than jars. They functioned as serving dishes, and usually feature a handle on one side. This, along with a pinched rim noticeable on some jugs, made it easy to pour liquids. So David took the spear and the jug of water by Saul’s head (1 Samuel 26:12).
Juglets: Juglets are the miniature version of jugs. Bronze Age juglets tend to be elongated and pointed on the bottom, but by the Iron Age the shape became more globular, a shape that continued, with some variation, through the Roman era. Some juglets featured pinched rims for ease of pouring. Then take the vial of oil, and pour it on his head, and say, “Thus says the Lord, I have anointed you king over Israel” (2 Kings 9:3).
Zak’s Antiquities shop established in 1964 is located on the Christian Quarter road of the Old City in Jerusalem.
Jordan has become famous for the high standard of crafts available to tourists and local people alike. A wide variety of crafts fill the shops of Amman and the bustling bazaars of the smaller towns and villages, far from the capital. Crafts such as pottery, jewelry, embroidery, carpets, and traditional costumes are also found around Amman are some of the finest glass blowers who continue to create fabulous glass objects in styles typical of the region. The nomadic Bedouin's flocks of sheep are fine providers of wool, woven on small looms, and made into all types of goods. One of the most rewarding purchases to make is that of an Arab Oriental rug or carpet. Every rug has its own intrinsic character, its own special feel and unique design.
The ancient art of the mosaic consists of pressing ceramic or glass fragments (known as tessera) into wet plaster to create detailed and ornate works of art. These creation unite form with function, decorating churches, monasteries and public gathering places with stories, maps, writings and murals. The mosaics are invaluable in providing historians with the names and dates of important historical figures and events, all of which aid in delineating the ancient history of Christianity in the area. The mosaics of Jordan most frequently originated during the Byzantine-Umayyad period, from the fifth to the eighth centuries AD.
Probably the most ancient craft in Jordan is the creation of earthenware products out of silsal (Arabic for clay). Pottery was first invented in the Levant in the 6th millennium B.C. and, according to some, its invention may have been accidental. A lump of clay may have been mistakenly dropped into a fire, and when the ashes cooled, the astonished discoverer noticed that the clay was hard as a rock! Traditional ceramics from the West Bank city of al-Khalil (Hebron) have influenced Jordanian pottery making. Coarsely-fired vases, pots and plates are placed on a rotating wheel. Then, the artist makes his or her choice of brushes and colors, and begins to paint. Each artist tries to out-master the others, and the styles of the greatest are imitated by other craft persons.
In the past, both nomadic Bedouins and villagers created hand woven rugs using ground looms or upright looms. This handicraft began to fade away as the Bedouins started to settle. In order to preserve the art, however, Jordanian artisans worked in partnership with the Save The Children Charity Organization and the Noor Al-Hussein Foundation to establish the Bani Hameeda Project, a self –help rug weaving "Cottage Industry" which provides independent supplemental income for rural and urban women. Jordanians continue to weave handmade rugs in the traditional dark shades of green, red, black and orange, although in recent years light pastel colors have also become popular.
Music is also important in Jordanian life. Traditional Arabic music is based on a five-tone scale, unlike our Western seven-tone system. The rhythms are elaborate. Songs often tell stories of family, honor, love and death. Most instrumentalists accompany a vocalist rather than playing on their own, and improvisation is common. Some Arabic instruments include the oud (similar to a lute), the mizmarmujwiz or nay (both types of flute), the rababah (a type of violin with one string), and the gerbeh (like bagpipes). Small drums, played on the lap, are used to keep the rhythm. American pop and rock music is popular with younger Jordanians.
The oud (or ud) is one of the most popular instruments in Middle Eastern music. Its name derives from the Arabic for 'wood', and this refers to the strips of wood used to make its rounded body. In Greece it is known as the outi and in Iran as the barbat. The neck of the oud, which is short in comparison to the body, has no frets and this contributes to its unique sound. The most common string combination is five pairs of strings tuned in unison and a single bass string, although up to thirteen strings may be found. Strings are generally made of nylon or gut, and are plucked with a plectrum known as a risha or mizrap. Another distinctive feature of the oud is its head, with the tuning pegs bent back at an angle to the neck. The oud used in the Arab world is slightly different to that found in Turkey, Armenia and Greece. Different tunings are used and the Turkish-style oud has a brighter tone than its Arab counterpart. The European lute is a descendant of the oud, from which it takes its name (al-oud).
Like ceramics, glass blowing is a craft, which combines practicality with beauty, the craft of glass blowing has been perfected over 2000 years, but today it is a dying art in the Middle East. It takes years of practice for craftsman to master the art of glass blowing. With a hollow pipe he scoops up a lump of oozing glass and, while continually rotating the glowing orb, blows through the pipe. When he has expanded the glass to its desired size, it is then put in a special chamber to cool down from the 900 C furnace. The traditional center of glassware artistry in the region is Hebron. However, some of the finest of all Hebron glass blowers can now be found in and around Amman. Today in Jordan, one finds vases, bottles and glasses handcrafted in magnificent royal blue and rich green blown glass.
For decades, bottles filled with brightly colored sand have been made by artisans in Aqaba and Petra. The bottles are inexpensive, and their playful patterns unique to Jordan. It is said that a Petra Native, Mohammed Abdullah Othman, taught himself the craft as a child, collecting his material from nearby mountains and caves. Since there are more than twenty natural occurring shades of sandstone, Othman and his imitators have no need for dyes.
A Historical Perspective of Jordanian Stamps
Up till the year 1918 and during the Ottoman Empire's rule over Jordan, the only postal stamps used were Ottoman issues. In the years 1919-1920 and during the reign of the late King Faisal a new collection of stamps was issued bearing the Arab Kingdom emblem. The establishment of the Emirate of Trans-Jordan made way for the introduction of Syrian stamps instead of the previously utilized Arab Kingdom ones. It was not until 1922 that a Jordanian citizen created a postal seal bearing the name of the Emirate of Trans-Jordan marking the establishment of the state.
Five years later and in 1927 the first postal stamp with the picture of the late Prince Abdullah Bin Al Hussein was issued. The first Jordanian stamp collection to appear was in 1932 with various pictures of historical monuments and archaeological sites in addition to different pictures of Prince Abdullah I. Stamp collections continued to be produced to commemorate historical events such as the declaration of independence in 1946, the establishment of the Parliament in 1947, and the union of the East and west Banks of Jordan in 1952 and HAM the late King Hussein coronation in 1953. New stamps were issued in a rate of 6-10 times a year depending on the frequency of national and international events.
Rated among the finest in the world, Jordanian cuisine, while unique, is part of the Arabian culinary heritage. Food in the Arab world is more than simply a matter of nourishment. Feasting is a preoccupation and food is often at the center of social customs. In fact, eating rituals are very important throughout the Middle East, and, as a guest, you can be assured vast platters of succulent and nutritious food will be produced to honor your visit. A 'Jordanian invitation' means that the guest is expected to bring nothing and eat everything provided by the host.
Dishes will satisfy even the health conscious, as many of them are prepared with grains, cheese, yogurt, fresh and dried fruits and vegetables. Rice, flat breads, legumes, olives, lamb or chicken, yogurt, vegetables and fruits are the staples for most meals. In addition, rice is the major ingredient of many dishes.
The national dish of Jordan is the Bedouin specialty called “Mansaf” – lamb seasoned with aromatic herbs, sometimes lightly spiced, cooked in dried yogurt, and served on a large platter with huge, quantities of rice, sprinkled with almonds, pine kernels, and other nuts. Feasting on Mansaf is taken seriously, and hours are spent in preparation. This extravagant cuisine is served primarily on special occasions such as weddings, birthdays, and anniversaries, as it possesses an important symbolic function within social gatherings.
This is one of the most important traditional crafts of Jordanian women and has, in recent years, been incorporated into high fashion. Elegant gowns and jackets have been created using traditional needlework together with rich, Middle Eastern fabrics and these designer collections are frequently modeled on the catwalks of Jordanian hotels.
It all began much more simply, however, with the young Jordanian girl learning the craft of embroidery in her village and often being judged through her skill on the quality of bridegroom she would attract. Every Jordanian girl from every social class at one time embroidered her own trousseau, which consisted of between six and twelve loosely-cut robes and which lasted her for a lifetime.
This art of embroidery has been carried over into the making of cushions, which grace the décor of many Jordanian homes. Colors range from shades of red, maroon, purple, and pink, with bright additions of green, orange, and gold. Simple cross-stitch is the basis for a plethora of complicated designs and recurring motifs include trees, flowers, feathers, waves, and geometric zigzags or triangles. More recently, embroidery crafts have developed to include quilts.
Jordan is a tolerant, Islamic state that welcomes all religions. A majority of Jordanians are Muslim, about 92% are Sunni Muslim, and 1% are Shia or Sufi. Cities in the south of Jordan, have the highest percentage of Muslims. Christians, living mostly in Amman or the Jordan Valley , make up 6% of the total, with 1% representing other religions. Most of the Christians are ether Orthodox or Catholic. Religion is an open and well-conversed aspect of the Jordanian life, with numerous missionary groups in the country. Jordan is also home to many historical religious sites and some of the world’s earliest know churches, including: Bethany Beyond the Jordan, where John the Baptist baptized Jesus Mount Nebo a small church overlooking the Dead Sea, that holds the Ark of Covenant and the Altar of Incense. Umm Qays overlooking the Sea of Galilee, is the site of Jesus’ miracle of the Gadarene swine and finally Petra, which is mentioned in the Bible’s old Testament several times, and is today an Islamic tomb.
Shipwreck Archaeology of the Holy Land
This intriguing book is the first to explore the potential of shipwrecks discovered off the Holy Land to rewrite social and economic history.
Author: Sean A. Kingsley
Publisher: Bristol Classical Press
1. Of shipwrecks and economies. 2. Myths, misconceptions and maritime heritage. 3. Site-formation analyses. 4. The shipwrecks of Byzantine Palestine. 5. Specialised production in the Holy Land. 6. Exports, imports and the balance of trade. 7. Shipwreck archaeology : an integrated future.