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Siege of Pskov, August 1581-January 1582

Siege of Pskov, August 1581-January 1582

Siege of Pskov, August 1581-January 1582

Pskov was an important Russian base on the eastern border of Livonia. After a successful campaign in Livonia in 1577, Ivan IV of Russia had found himself on the defensive. In 1579 and 1580 he lost Polock, Velikie Luki and Kholm. In 1581 Stephan Batory led his army into Russian territory, and in August 1581 established a siege of Pskov.

The city was defended by a garrison of 7,000 strel’tsy (a force of professional infantry established by Ivan earlier in his reign), 2,000 cavalry and 10,000 local levies but its greatest defence was the barren nature of the countryside and the bitter winter weather. Stephan Batory’s forces had to forage for supplies over an increasingly wide area – by January 1582 foraging parties needed to travel up to 250 miles to find supplies, with round trips taking a month. Fortunately for Batory the campaigns of the previous two years had weakened the Russian army, and the Polish-Lithuanian cavalry dominated the areas around Pskov.

Despite a shortage of cannons and a lengthy supply route that made it almost impossible to get sufficient gunpowder to Pskov, Batory’s men were able to breach the city walls. However, the Russian defenders were able to either repair the breaches or create new lines of defences inside the city and fight off the Polish-Lithuanian attacks.

The siege of Pskov was still a success. Unable to intervene to relieve the city, and aware that it would eventually fall, Ivan was forced to come to terms with Poland-Lithuania. At the Peace of Iam Zapolskii (15 January 1582), he agreed to surrender all of his conquests in Livonia in order to retain control of Pskov.


PSKOV - RUSSIA

Pskov Republic Main article:
Pskov Republic By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de facto sovereign republic. Its most powerful force was the merchants who traded with the Hanseatic League. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years later, the veche promulgated a law code (called the Pskov Charter), which was one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497. For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe for Europe, it was a western outpost of Russia. Already in the 13th century German merchants were present in Zapskovye area of Pskov and the Hanseatic League had a trading post in the same area in the first half of 16th century which moved to Zavelichye after a fire in 1562. The wars with Livonian Order, Poland-Lithuania and Sweden interrupted the trade but it was maintained until the 17th century, with Swedish merchants gaining the upper hand eventually. The importance of the city made it the subject of numerous sieges throughout its history. The Pskov Krom (or Kremlin) withstood twenty-six sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, and the local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov.

Part of Muscovy:
Finally, in 1510, the city was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Three hundred families were deported from Pskov to central Russia and merchants and military families from Muscovy were settled in the city. At this time Pskov had at least 6,500 households and the population of more than 30,000 and was one of the three biggest cities of Muscovy, alongside Moscow and Novgorod. The deportation of noble families to Moscow under Ivan IV in 1570 is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka (1872). Pskov still attracted enemy armies and it withstood a prolonged siege by a 50,000-strong Polish army during the final stage of the Livonian War (1581�). The king of Poland Stephen Báthory undertook some thirty-one attacks to storm the city, which was defended mainly by civilians. Even after one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "A big city, it is like Paris", wrote Báthory's secretary about Pskov. The estimates of the population of Pskov land in the middle of 16th century range from 150 to 300 thousand. Famines, epidemics (especially the epidemic of 1552) and the warfare led to a five-fold decrease of the population by 1582-1585 due to mortality and migration. The city withstood a siege by the Swedes in 1615. The successful defence of the city led to the peace negotiations culminating in the Treaty of Stolbovo.

Modern history:
Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Livonia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777. During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines. It was at a railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March 1917, and after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference (December 22, 1917 – March 3, 1918), the Imperial German Army invaded the area. Pskov was also occupied by the Estonian army between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence when the White Russian commander Stanislaw Bulak-Balachowicz became the military administrator of Pskov. He personally ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city. He also put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers. Under the Soviet government, large parts of the city were rebuilt, many ancient buildings, particularly churches, were demolished to give space for new constructions. During World War II, the medieval citadel provided little protection against modern artillery of Wehrmacht, and Pskov suffered substantial damage during the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. A huge portion of the population died during the war, and Pskov has since struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial and cultural center of Western Russia.

Landmarks and sights:
Dozens of similar quaint little churches are scattered throughout Pskov. Pskov still preserves much of its medieval walls, built from the 13th century on. Its medieval citadel is called either the Krom or the Kremlin. Within its walls rises the 256-foot-tall (78 m) Trinity Cathedral, founded in 1138 and rebuilt in the 1690s. The cathedral contains the tombs of saint princes Vsevolod (died in 1138) and Dovmont (died in 1299). Other ancient cathedrals adorn the Mirozhsky Monastery (completed by 1152), famous for its 12th-century frescoes, St. John's (completed by 1243), and the Snetogorsky monastery (built in 1310 and stucco-painted in 1313). Pskov is exceedingly rich in tiny, squat, picturesque churches, dating mainly from the 15th and the 16th centuries. There are many dozens of them, the most notable being St. Basil's on the Hill (1413), St. Kozma and Demian's near the Bridge (1463), St. George's from the Downhill (1494), Assumption from the Ferryside (1444, 1521), and St. Nicholas' from Usokha (1536). The 17th-century residential architecture is represented by merchant mansions, such as the Salt House, the Pogankin Palace, and the Trubinsky mansion. Among the sights in the vicinity of Pskov are Izborsk, a seat of Rurik's brother in the 9th century and one of the most formidable fortresses of medieval Russia the Pskov Monastery of the Caves, the oldest continually functioning monastery in Russia (founded in the mid-15th century) and a magnet for pilgrims from all over the country the 16th-century Krypetsky Monastery Yelizarov Convent, which used to be a great cultural and literary center of medieval Russia and Mikhaylovskoye, a family home of Alexander Pushkin where he wrote some of the best known lines in the Russian language. The national poet of Russia is buried in the ancient cloister at the Holy Mountains nearby. Unfortunately, the area presently has only a minimal tourist infrastructure, and the historic core of Pskov requires serious investments to realize its great tourist potential. On 7 July 2019, the Churches of the Pskov School of Architecture was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


2. Pskov (1582-1583)

At the final stage of the Livonian War (1558-1583), things were really bad for Russia: not only had it lost all its conquests in the Baltic region to Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but also risked losing its native lands in the north-western part of the country.

Polish King Stephen Bathory had already captured numerous cities near Pskov, and to consolidate the success besieged the ancient Russian city. From August 1581 till February 1582, the garrison of 16,000 men including Don Cossacks resisted 47,000 enemy soldiers.

Although during one of the assaults the attackers managed to make breaches in the walls and capture two towers, the counterattacking Russian troops not only knocked them out of the city, but even broke into the enemy camp.

The numerous fierce Polish attacks were repelled by the defenders, among whom were women and children. Having failed to capture the fortress, Stephan Bathory made peace with Ivan the Terrible. Despite gaining Russian conquests in the Baltics, he returned all cities captured by him in the Pskov land.


Siege of Pskov by Stefan Batory-briefly

The Livonian War was a major military conflict that lasted from 1558 by 1583 years. The turning point in the course of the war was the siege of Pskov. The main enemy forces in the siege operation were the troops of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a state formed by the merger of Lithuania and Poland in the Soviet Union. 1569 year. Stefan Batory, the Polish king, hoped to capture the Pskov fortress briefly and quickly, but faced strong resistance, which remained the biggest military loss in the life of the king.

The Russian voivodes provided that the enemy forces would be directed to Pskov, as an important springboard for further offensive. At the beginning of the siege, the city was a complex network of engineering defenses, including: 37 fortress towers, several rows of defensive walls and ditches. Enemy forces, according to various sources, numbered from 45 before 100 thousands of soldiers and mercenaries. The Russians could not boast of such a large number of combat units. At the beginning of the siege, there were only a few people in the city. 6 thousands of tsarist regular army soldiers and 10 thousands of people's militia. The population of Pskov was about 20 thousands of people, half of whom came to the defense of their native city. In the middle 1580 a year later, the royal army under the leadership of Prince Ivan Shuisky arrived in the city and began preparing to repel attacks.

In August 1581 a year later, the Polish army led by Stefan Batory approached the southern borders of the city. Hoping to take the city by lightning storm, the enemy forces encountered a fierce rebuff, as a result of which they were forced to retreat and begin building a siege camp.

5 september The shelling of the two southern city towers and the wall laid between them began. After a massive artillery barrage, 7 However, the towers were critically damaged, and the wall connecting them collapsed. The next day, the Polish army under the leadership of the crown Hetman Jan Zamoyski stormed. Fierce fighting continued on the southern outskirts of the city. The Poles were trapped, under the fire of Russian artillery, which mixed buildings with enemy soldiers. The enemy could not hold the territories occupied by them and retreated, and Pskov residents then began to strengthen the fortress walls and restore the destroyed buildings.

After an unsuccessful assault, the siege was continued. Trenches, regular shelling, and further attempts at assault did not lead Stefan Batory to success. His army was demoralized, and desertions were not uncommon. Realizing that, despite his numerical superiority, he would not be able to break the spirit of Russian resistance, the king was forced to 13 December's 1581 you can take the shameful step of starting peace negotiations.

The peace treaty and its significance

15 January 1582 Two years later, the Yam-Zampol Peace Treaty was concluded, ending the Livonian War. According to the agreement, Russia and Poland renounced the lands conquered during the war.

It is difficult to overestimate the historical significance of the Pskov defense. Historians agree that if Batory managed to take Pskov, then his expansion would continue to all Russian lands. The soldiers of the besieged Pskov gave a decisive rebuff to aggressive neighbors, preventing them from conquering their Fatherland.


Blessed Nicholas (Salos) of Pskov the Fool-For-Christ

Blessed Nicholas of Pskov lived the life of a holy fool for more than three decades. Long before his death he acquired the grace of the Holy Spirit and was granted the gifts of wonderworking and of prophecy. The Pskov people of his time called him Mikula [Mikola, Nikola] the Fool. Even during his lifetime they revered him as a saint, even calling him Mikula the saintly.

In February 1570, after a devastating campaign against Novgorod, Tsar Ivan the Terrible moved against Pskov, suspecting the inhabitants of treason. As the Pskov Chronicler relates, &ldquothe Tsar came . with great fierceness, like a roaring lion, to tear apart innocent people and to shed much blood.&rdquo

On the first Saturday of Great Lent, the whole city prayed to be delivered from the Tsar&rsquos wrath. Hearing the peal of the bell for Matins in Pskov, the Tsar&rsquos heart was softened when he read the inscription on the fifteenth century wonderworking Liubyatov Tenderness Icon of the Mother of God (March 19) in the Monastery of Saint Nicholas (the Tsar&rsquos army was at Lubyatov). &ldquoBe tender of heart,&rdquo he said to his soldiers. &ldquoBlunt your swords upon the stones, and let there be an end to killing.&rdquo

All the inhabitants of Pskov came out upon the streets, and each family knelt at the gate of their house, bearing bread and salt to the meet the Tsar. On one of the streets Blessed Nicholas ran toward the Tsar astride a stick as though riding a horse, and cried out: &ldquoIvanushko, Ivanushko, eat our bread and salt, and not Christian blood.&rdquo

The Tsar gave orders to capture the holy fool, but he disappeared.

Though he had forbidden his men to kill, Ivan still intended to sack the city. The Tsar attended a Molieben at the Trinity cathedral, and he venerated the relics of holy Prince Vsevolod-Gabriel (February 11), and expressed his wish to receive the blessing of the holy fool Nicholas. The saint instructed the Tsar &ldquoby many terrible sayings,&rdquo to stop the killing and not to plunder the holy churches of God. But Ivan did not heed him and gave orders to remove the bell from the Trinity cathedral. Then, as the saint prophesied, the Tsar&rsquos finest horse fell dead.

The blessed one invited the Tsar to visit his cell under the bell tower. When the Tsar arrived at the cell of the saint, he said, &ldquoHush, come in and have a drink of water from us, there is no reason you should shun it.&rdquo Then the holy fool offered the Tsar a piece of raw meat.

&ldquoI am a Christian and do not eat meat during Lent&rdquo, said Ivan to him. &ldquoBut you drink human blood,&rdquo the saint replied.

Frightened by the fulfillment of the saint&rsquos prophecy and denounced for his wicked deeds, Ivan the Terrible ordered a stop to the looting and fled from the city. The Oprichniki, witnessing this, wrote: &ldquoThe mighty tyrant . departed beaten and shamed, driven off as though by an enemy. Thus did a worthless beggar terrify and drive off the Tsar with his multitude of a thousand soldiers.&rdquo

Blessed Nicholas died on February 28, 1576 and was buried in the Trinity cathedral of the city he had saved. Such honors were granted only to the Pskov princes, and later on, to bishops.

The local veneration of the saint began five years after his death. In the year 1581, during a siege of Pskov by the soldiers of the Polish king Stephen Bathory, the Mother of God appeared to the blacksmith Dorotheus together with a number of Pskov saints praying for the city. Among these was Blessed Nicholas (the account about the Pskov-Protection Icon of the Mother of God is found under October 1).

At the Trinity cathedral they still venerate the relics of Blessed Nicholas of Pskov, who was &ldquoa holy fool in the flesh, and by assuming this holy folly he became a citizen of the heavenly Jerusalem&rdquo (Troparion). He also &ldquotransformed the Tsar&rsquos wild thoughts into mercy&rdquo (Kontakion).


Contents

Early history Edit

Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia. The name of the city, originally Pleskov (historic Russian spelling Плѣсковъ , Plěskov), may be loosely translated as "[the town] of purling waters". It was historically known in English as Plescow. [9] Its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev married a local lady, St. Olga. [10] Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, and in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary.

The first prince of Pskov was Vladimir the Great's youngest son Sudislav. Once imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he was not released until the latter's death several decades later. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic. In 1241, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, but Alexander Nevsky recaptured it several months later during a legendary campaign dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie Alexander Nevsky.

In order to secure their independence from the knights, the Pskovians elected a Lithuanian prince, named Daumantas, a Roman Catholic converted to Orthodox faith and known in Russia as Dovmont, as their military leader and prince in 1266. Having fortified the town, Daumantas routed the Teutonic Knights at Rakvere and overran much of Estonia. His remains and sword are preserved in the local kremlin, and the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears the name of "Dovmont's town".

Pskov Republic Edit

By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de facto sovereign republic. Its most powerful force was the merchants who traded with the Hanseatic League. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years later, the veche promulgated a law code (called the Pskov Charter), which was one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497.

For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe for Europe, it was a western outpost of Russia. Already in the 13th century German merchants were present in Zapskovye area of Pskov and the Hanseatic League had a trading post in the same area in the first half of 16th century which moved to Zavelichye after a fire in 1562. [11] [12] The wars with Livonian Order, Poland-Lithuania and Sweden interrupted the trade but it was maintained until the 17th century, with Swedish merchants gaining the upper hand eventually. [12]

The importance of the city made it the subject of numerous sieges throughout its history. The Pskov Krom (or Kremlin) withstood twenty-six sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, and the local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov.

Part of Muscovy Edit

Finally, in 1510, the city was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. [13] Three hundred families were deported from Pskov to central Russia and merchants and military families from Muscovy were settled in the city. At this time Pskov had at least 6,500 households and the population of more than 30,000 and was one of the three biggest cities of Muscovy, alongside Moscow and Novgorod. [14] [15]

The deportation of noble families to Moscow under Ivan IV in 1570 is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka (1872). Pskov still attracted enemy armies and it withstood a prolonged siege by a 50,000-strong Polish-Lithuanian army during the final stage of the Livonian War (1581–1582). The king of Poland Stephen Báthory undertook some thirty-one attacks to storm the city, which was defended mainly by civilians. Even after one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "A big city, it is like Paris", wrote Báthory's secretary about Pskov. [16]

The estimates of the population of Pskov land in the middle of 16th century range from 150 to 300 thousand. Famines, epidemics (especially the epidemic of 1552) and the warfare led to a five-fold decrease of the population by 1582-1585 due to mortality and migration. [17] [18]

The city withstood a siege by the Swedish in 1615. The successful defence of the city led to the peace negotiations culminating in the Treaty of Stolbovo.

Modern history Edit

Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Livonia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777.

During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines. It was at a railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March 1917, and after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference (December 22, 1917 – March 3, 1918), the Imperial German Army invaded the area. Pskov was also occupied by the Estonian army between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence when the White Russian commander Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz became the military administrator of Pskov. He personally ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city. He also put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers. [ citation needed ]

Under the Soviet government, large parts of the city were rebuilt, many ancient buildings, particularly churches, were demolished to give space for new constructions. During World War II, the medieval citadel provided little protection against modern artillery of Wehrmacht, and Pskov suffered substantial damage during the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. A huge portion of the population died during the war, and Pskov has since struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial and cultural center of Western Russia.

Pskov is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Pskovsky District, even though it is not a part of it. [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Pskov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the City of Pskov is incorporated as Pskov Urban Okrug. [4]

Pskov still preserves much of its medieval walls, built from the 13th century on. Its medieval citadel is called either the Krom or the Kremlin. Within its walls rises the 256-foot-tall (78 m) Trinity Cathedral, founded in 1138 and rebuilt in the 1690s. The cathedral contains the tombs of saint princes Vsevolod (died in 1138) and Dovmont (died in 1299). Other ancient cathedrals adorn the Mirozhsky Monastery (completed by 1152), famous for its 12th-century frescoes, St. John's (completed by 1243), and the Snetogorsky monastery (built in 1310 and stucco-painted in 1313).

Pskov is exceedingly rich in tiny, squat, picturesque churches, dating mainly from the 15th and the 16th centuries. There are many dozens of them, the most notable being St. Basil's on the Hill (1413), St. Kozma and Demian's near the Bridge (1463), St. George's from the Downhill (1494), Assumption from the Ferryside (1444, 1521), and St. Nicholas' from Usokha (1536). The 17th-century residential architecture is represented by merchant mansions, such as the Salt House, the Pogankin Palace, and the Trubinsky mansion.

Among the sights in the vicinity of Pskov are Izborsk, a seat of Rurik's brother in the 9th century and one of the most formidable fortresses of medieval Russia the Pskov Monastery of the Caves, the oldest continually functioning monastery in Russia (founded in the mid-15th century) and a magnet for pilgrims from all over the country the 16th-century Krypetsky Monastery Yelizarov Convent, which used to be a great cultural and literary center of medieval Russia and Mikhaylovskoye, a family home of Alexander Pushkin where he wrote some of the best known lines in the Russian language. The national poet of Russia is buried in the ancient cloister at the Holy Mountains nearby. Unfortunately, the area presently has only a minimal tourist infrastructure, and the historic core of Pskov requires serious investments to realize its great tourist potential.

On 7 July 2019, the Churches of the Pskov School of Architecture was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [19]

Climate Edit

The climate of Pskov is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with maritime influences due to the city's relative proximity to the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland with relatively mild (for Russia) but still quite long winter and warm summer. Summer and fall have more precipitation than winter and spring.


Oda Nobuo Humiliated

Nobuo decided to deal with the Mori/Kitabatake threat by seizing Iga Province. He first took Maruyama Castle early in 1579 and began to fortify it however, the Iga officials knew exactly what he was doing, because many of their ninja had taken construction jobs at the castle. Armed with this intelligence, the Iga commanders attacked Maruyama one night and burned it to the ground.

Humiliated and furious, Oda Nobuo decided to attack Iga immediately in an all-out assault. His ten to twelve thousand warriors launched a three-pronged attack over the major mountain passes in eastern Iga in September 1579. They converged on Iseji village, where the 4,000 to 5,000 Iga warriors lay in wait.

As soon as Nobuo's forces had entered the valley, Iga fighters attacked from the front, while other forces cut off the passes to block the Oda army's retreat. From the cover, the Iga ninja shot Nobuo's warriors with firearms and bows, then closed to finish them off with swords and spears. Fog and rain descended, leaving the Oda samurai bewildered. Nobuo's army disintegrated - some killed by friendly fire, some committing seppuku, and thousands falling to the Iga forces. As historian Stephen Turnbull points out, this was "one of the most dramatic triumphs of unconventional warfare over traditional samurai tactics in the whole of Japanese history."

Oda Nobuo escaped the slaughter but was roundly chastised by his father for the fiasco. Nobunaga noted that his son has failed to hire any ninja of his own to spy out the enemy's position and strength. "Get shinobi (ninja). This one action alone will gain you a victory."


History

The caves at Pechersky were used by monks looking for solitude long before St. Jonah (Shesnik) built the Church of the Dormition of the Theotokos (церковь Успения Богородицы) into the hillside near the caves. The church was consecrated on August 15, 1473, which is considered the date of the founding of the monastery.

For almost three hundred years the monastery was an important outpost of the Russian nation, defending its western border against attack from the west. The area was involved in almost constant warfare during these centuries. It was attacked by Livonians for years following its founding in the late fifteenth century. In 1581-1582, the monastery was under siege by the Polish king Stefan Batory. During the Time of Troubles, between 1611 and 1616, the monastery was attacked by Polish and Swedish forces. But, after the Tsar Peter I’s wars of 1700 to 1721, the monastery lost its importance and lapsed into relative obscurity.

During the middle of the sixteenth century Pskov-Caves monastery rose to its greatest level of prominence under the leadership of St. Cornelius, abbot of the Pskov Caves. In 1529, the monk Cornelius became an igumen and abbot of the monastery, at the age of twenty-eight. In addition to expanding the intellectual and spiritual efforts of the monastery, that included missionary work, the Pskov chronicles, and books that he wrote, he sponsored many physical changes to the monastery. He enlarged the monastery caves, moved older churches, built the Church of the Annunciation of the Most Holy Theotokos in 1541, and the Church of the Protection of the Most Holy Theotokos in 1559. Between 1558 and 1565, St Cornelius had the stone wall built around the monastery including a stone church dedicated to St. Nicholas over the gates of the monastery. He also encourage the preaching of Christianity to the pagans in the occupied cities of the area during the Livonian wars. During his tenure as abbot the monastic population of the monastery increased from 15 to 200, a number that has not been surpassed since.

Even in his death, St. Cornelius left his mark on the monastery. On February 20, 1570, Tsar Ivan IV (the terrible), arrived at the Pskov Monastery in a raging anger over a false slander. St. Cornelius met him with a cross at the monastery gates, where upon Ivan attacked the sainted abbot, beheading Cornelius with his own hands. Ivan immediately became remorseful and repented his deed. Ivan then picked up Cornelius’ body and carried it down the path from the gates to the Dormition Cathedral, making a pathway scarlet with the Saint’s blood, a pathway that became known as the Bloody Path.

During the peace negotiations after the Bolshevik ascendency after World War I, the drawing of the borderline for Estonia placed the monastery in Estonia. As a result the Pskov-Caves monastery escaped the destruction meted out to the Orthodox monasteries and churches in the Soviet Union before World War II. The area of the monastery became part of the Soviet Union only after the Baltic States, including Estonia, were occupied by the Bolsheviks in 1939.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union the monastery has flourished. The monastery has grown to about ninety monks who through their pastoral labors live the tradition of asceticism and eldership as witnessed recently by the Archimandrites John (Krestiankin) and Adrian (Kirsanov).

One of well-known theologians and spiritual leaders in Russia, Archimandrite Tikhon (Shevkunov) began his monastic way in Pskov-Caves monastery.


Referensi [ sunting | sunting sumber ]

  1. ^ Соколов Б. В. Осада Пскова польским королём Стефаном Баторием в 1581 г. — Сто великих войн,. — М., 2001.
  2. ^ Rickard, J (24 July 2007), Siege of Pskov, August 1581-January 1582 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/seige_pskov1582.html
  3. ^"Polish Renaissance Warfare - Summary of Conflicts - Part Three". Jasinski.co.uk . Diakses tanggal 2014-01-24 .  
  4. ^ E. Liptai: Magyarország hadtörténete (1), Zrínyi katonai kiadó 1984. ISBN963-326-320-4

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RUSSIA | Urban Transport Compilation

Pskov is an ancient city and the administrative center of Pskov Region, located in the northwest of Russia about 20 kilometers (12 miles) east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. The name of the city, originally spelled "Pleskov", may be loosely translated as "[the town] of purling waters". Its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev (future ruler of Kievan Rus) married a local lady, who became known as St. Olga (she ruled Kievan Rus after Igor's death as regent for their son). Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date (St. Olga is considered as founder of the city), and in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1100th anniversary.

The first prince of Pskov was St. Vladimir's younger son Sudislav. Once imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he was not released until the latter's death several decades later. After the disintegration of Kievan Rus in the 12th century, the city of Pskov with its surrounding territories along the Velikaya River, Lake Peipus, Pskovskoye Lake and Narva River became part of the Novgorod Republic. It kept its special autonomous rights, including the right for independent construction of suburbs (Izborsk is the most ancient among them). In 1240, it was taken by the Teutonic knights, but Prince of Novgorod Alexander Nevsky recaptured it several months later during a legendary campaign dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie. In order to secure their independence from the knights, the Pskovians elected a Lithuanian Prince, named Daumantas, a Roman Catholic converted to Orthodox faith and known in Russia as Dovmont, as their military leader and Prince during 1266-1299. Having fortified the town, Daumantas defeated the Teutonic knights at Battle of Wesenberg (1268) and overran much of Estonia. His remains and sword are preserved in the local Kremlin, and the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears the name of "Dovmont's town".

Due to Pskov's leading role in the struggle against the Livonian Order, its influence spread significantly. By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de-facto sovereign republic. The Novgorod boyars formally recognized Pskov's independence in the Treaty of Bolotovo (1348), relinquishing their right to appoint the posadniks (mayors) of Pskov. The city of Pskov remained dependent on Novgorod only in ecclesiastical matters until 1589, when a separate bishopric of Pskov was created and the archbishops of Novgorod dropped Pskov from their title and were created "Archbishops of Novgorod the Great and Velikie Luki". The Pskov Republic had well-developed farming, fishing, blacksmithing, jeweler’s art, and construction industry. Exchange of commodities within the republic itself and its trade with Novgorod and other Russian cities, the Baltic region, and Western European cities made Pskov one of the biggest handicraft and trade centers of Rus. Its most powerful force was the merchants who brought the town into the Hanseatic League (currently Pskov is a member city of the Hanseatic League of New Time and will host Hanseatic Days international festival in 2033).

As opposed to the Novgorod Republic, Pskov never had big feudal landowners, whose estates were smaller and even more scattered than of those in Novgorod. The estates of Pskovian monasteries and churches were much smaller as well. The social relations that had taken shape in the Pskov Republic were reflected in the "Pskov Judicial Charter" (1397), which was one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497. Peculiarities of the economy, centuries-old ties with Novgorod, frontier status, and military threats led to the development of the veche system in the Pskov Republic. The Princes played a subordinate role. The veche (popular assembly) elected posadniks (mayors) and sotskiys (officials who represented a hundred households), and regulated the relations between feudals, posad people, izborniks (elected officials) and smerds (peasants). The boyar council had a special influence on the decisions of the veche, which gathered at the Trinity Cathedral. The latter also held the archives of the veche and important private papers and state documents. The elective offices became a privilege of several noble families.

For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe. For Europe, it was a western outpost of Russia and subject of numerous attacks throughout the history. Unbelievably, the Kremlin (called by Pskovians the Krom) withstood 26 sieges alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, and local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov.

The strengthening of ties with Moscow, caused by economic development and foreign policy objectives, Pskov’s participation in the Battle of Kulikovo (1380), and successful joint struggle against the Teutonic Knights and Lithuanians offered conditions for elimination of the independence of the Pskov Republic. Since 1399 Pskov with its adjacent lands became a viceroyalty of Grand Duchy of Moscow with their own namestnik (viceroy) Prince appointed by the Moscow's royalty. In 1510, Grand Prince of Moscow Vasily III arrived in Pskov and pronounced it his land, thus, putting an end to the Pskov Republic and its autonomous rights. The city's ruling body, Pskov Veche, was dissolved and some 300 families of rich Pskovians were deported from the city. Their estates were distributed among the Muscovite service class people. From that time on, the city of Pskov and the lands around it continued to develop as a part of the centralized Russian state, preserving some of its economic and cultural traditions. The deportation of noble families to Moscow is a subject of Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov's opera "The Maid of Pskov" (1872). The downfall of Pskov is recounted in the Muscovite "Story of the Taking of Pskov" (1510), which was lauded by D. S. Mirsky as "one of the most beautiful short stories of Old Russia. The history of the Muscovites' leisurely perseverance is told with admirable simplicity and art. An atmosphere of descending gloom pervades the whole narrative: all is useless, and whatever the Pskovites can do, the Muscovite cat will take its time and eat the mouse when and how it pleases".

As the second largest city of Grand Duchy of Moscow, Pskov still attracted enemy armies. Most famously, it withstood a prolonged siege by a 50.000-strong Polish-Lithuanian army during the final stage (1581-1582) of the Livonian War of 1558-1583. The king Stefan Batory undertook some 31 attacks to storm the city, which was defended mainly by civilians. Even after one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. This heroic defense played significant role in the Russian history. The potential of Polish-Lithuanian offensive was very weakened. As result, Stefan Batory was forced to signed Treaty of Jam Zapolski (1582). According to this treaty, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth returned Russian territories, which were captured by its army. "It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Batory's siege.

Pskov was besieged by Swedish forces during the final stage (1615-1617) of the Ingrian War of 1610–1617. Swedish troops laid siege to Pskov but Russian generals Vasily Morozov and Fyodor Buturlin held their own until February 27, 1617, when the Treaty of Stolbovo was signed. This treaty stripped Russia of its access to the Baltic Sea and awarded to Sweden the province of Ingria with the townships of Ivangorod, Jama, Koporye and Noteborg. However, such ancient cities as Novgorod, Porkhov, Staraya Russa, Ladoga and Gdov were restituted to Russia. For the second time, successful defense of Pskov allowed Russia to sign peace treaty on more favorable terms than it could be.

Ingria and Karelia were recaptured by Russian Emperor Peter I as result of Great Northern War of 1700-1721. During this war, Pskov was main base of Russian Army. In 1700-1709, Peter the Great many times visited this city. Peter the Great's conquest of present-day Estonian and Latvian territories during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it has served as a capital of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777.

On February 22, 1859 there was opened railroad at the path St. Petersburg-Pskov, which became part of St. Petersburg-Warsaw Railway since December 27, 1862. Since 1886 began construction of Pskov-Riga Railway, which was opened on August 3, 1889. Those two railways became part of North-Western Railways in 1907. In 1881 there was opened water-conduit. By the end of 19th century, there were 55 factories and plants in the city. The population of Pskov was 21684 residents (1885), 30478 residents (1897) and 32856 residents (1910).

The first horse-drawn tramline in Pskov Governorate was put into operation in 1890 in Cheryokha village. In December 1900, one of members of the electric committee published in the local newspaper "Helios" article with proposal to build an electric tramline, but it was ignored. In 1904 was built first power station in Pskov. The construction of tram network was started in 1904 and finished in 1906. The first tramline was built from the Rail terminal to the Trade Square (now Lenin Square) and later to the salt barns at the Narva street (now Leon Pozemsky street) in Zapskovye District. However, due to lack of the necessary electrical power and tramcars an electric tramline was not put into operation.

The initiator of the opening of tramline was Pskov entrepreneur Georg Wickenheiser (1843-1914). He was born in Elsenz, Grand Duchy of Baden and moved in Pskov when he was 20 years old, with almost no money. He was engaged in sausage production and trade. In Pskov Wickenheiser made own business - he built apartment houses and cottages, organized water supply (1881), founded a brickyard and sawmill. In 1880s he built new pier, kursaal (sanatorium) and cottage houses in Cherokha village as well as horse-drawn tramline (1890) from the pier to the kursaal. Wickenheiser was nicknamed "Pskov American" for his pushfulness. He was died in 1914, few months before beginning of WWI.

Together with own son Karl, Georg Wickenheiser decided to open horse-drawn tram at the existing street railways. Wickenheiser's family paid their own money to buy tramcars, horses, and pledged to pay the workers as well as pay monthly rent into town treasury. On November 14, 1909 all six horse-drawn tramcars were put into operation and single-track tramline (1 meter wide) was opened for public. This day was opened part of tramline from Trade Square (now Lenin Square) to the Warsaw Rail Terminal (now Pskov I), later was opened part leading in Zapskovye District beyond the Pskova River. The total lenght of horse-drawn tramline was 4.2 km.

1910-1911. Great street (now Soviet street) in Pskov:

1910-1911. Horse-drawn tram line at Great street (now Soviet street):


Legacy

Forensic facial reconstruction of Ivan IV by Mikhail Gerasimov

Ivan's throne (ivory, metal, wood)

In the centuries following Ivan's death, historians developed different theories to better understand his reign, but independent of the perspective through which one chooses to approach this, it cannot be denied that Ivan the Terrible changed Russian history and continues to live on in popular imagination. His political legacy completely altered the Russian governmental structure his economic policies ultimately contributed to the end of the Rurik Dynasty, and his social legacy lives on in unexpected places.

Arguably Ivan's most important legacy can be found in the political changes he enacted in Russia. In the words of historian Alexander Yanov, "Ivan the Terrible and the origins of the modern Russian political structure [are]. indissolubly connected." ⎲]

A title alone may hold symbolic power, but Ivan's political revolution went further, in the process significantly altering Russia's political structure. The creation of the Oprichnina marked something completely new, a break from the past that served to diminish the power of the boyars and create a more centralized government. ". the revolution of Tsar Ivan was an attempt to transform an absolutist political structure into a despotism. the Oprichnina proved to be not only the starting point, but also the nucleus of autocracy which determined. the entire subsequent historical process in Russia." ⎳] Ivan created a way to bypass the Mestnichestvo system and elevate the men among the gentry to positions of power, thus suppressing the aristocracy that failed to support him. ⎴] Part of this revolution included altering the structure of local governments to include, "a combination of centrally appointed and locally elected officials. Despite later modifications, this form of local administration proved to be functional and durable." ⎗] Ivan successfully cemented autocracy and a centralized government in Russia, in the process also establishing "a centralized apparatus of political control in the form of his own guard." ⎵] The idea of a guard as a means of political control became so ingrained in Russian history that it can be traced to Peter the Great, Vladimir Lenin, who ". [provided] Russian autocracy with its Communist incarnation", and Joseph Stalin, who "[placed] the political police over the party." Yanov concludes that "Czar Ivan's monstrous invention [i.e. the guard] has thus dominated the entire course of Russian history." ⎶]

Ivan the Terrible And His Son Ivan, 16 November 1581 by Ilya Repin, 1885 (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)

By expanding into Poland (although a failed campaign), the Caspian and Siberia, Ivan established a sphere of influence that lasted until the 20th century. Ivan's conquests also ignited a conflict with Turkey that would lead to successive wars. "Russia's victories confined the Turkish conquests to the Balkans and the Black sea region, although Turkish expansionism continued to cast a shadow over the whole of Eastern Europe." ⎷]

The acquisition of new territory brought about another of Ivan's lasting legacies: a relationship with Europe, especially through trade. Although the contact between Russia and Europe remained small at this time, it would later grow, facilitating the permeation of European ideals across the border. Peter the Great would later push Russia to become a European power, and Catherine II would manipulate that power to make Russia a leader within the region.

Contrary to his political legacy, Ivan IV's economic legacy was disastrous and became one of the factors that led to the decline of the Rurik Dynasty and the Time of Troubles. Ivan inherited a government in debt, and in an effort to raise more revenue instituted a series of taxes. "It was the military campaigns themselves. that were responsible for the increasing government expenses." ⎸] To make matters worse, successive wars drained the country both of men and resources. "Muscovy from its core, where its centralized political structures depended upon a dying dynasty, to its frontiers, where its villages stood depopulated and its fields lay fallow, was on the brink of ruin." ⎹]

Ivan the Terrible meditating at the deathbed of his son. Ivan's murder of his son brought about the extinction of the Rurik Dynasty and the Time of Troubles. Painting by Vyacheslav Grigorievich Schwarz (1861).

Ivan's political revolution not only consolidated the position of Tsar, but also created a centralized government structure with ramifications extending to local government. "The assumption and active propaganda of the title of Czar, transgressions and sudden changes in policy during the Oprichnina contributed to the image of the Muscovite prince as a ruler accountable only to God." ⎗] Subsequent Russian rulers inherited a system put in place by Ivan.

Another interesting and unexpected aspect of Ivan's social legacy emerged within Communist Russia. In an effort to revive Russia nationalist pride, Ivan the Terrible's image became closely associated with Joseph Stalin. ⎺] Historians faced great difficulties when trying to gather information about Ivan IV in his early years because "Early Soviet historiography, especially in the 1920s, paid little attention to Ivan IV as a statesman." This, however, was not surprising because "Marxist intellectual tradition attached greater significance to socio-economic forces than to political history and the role of individuals." By the second half of the 1930s, the method used by Soviet historians changed. They placed a greater emphasis on the individual and history became more "comprehensible and accessible". The way was clear for an emphasis on 'great men', such as Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great, who made a major contribution to the strengthening and expansion of the Russian state. From this time on, the Soviet Union's focus on great leaders would be greatly exaggerated, leading historians to gather more and more information on the great Ivan the Terrible. ⎻]

Today, there exists a controversial movement in Russia campaigning in favor of granting sainthood to Ivan IV. ⎼] The Russian Orthodox Church has stated its opposition to the idea. ⎽]